SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is the reference platform for the software development of SAP. It is optimized for SAP applications. This document guides you through the installation of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.
SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension is also part of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.
Chapters in this manual contain links to additional documentation resources that are either available on the system or on the Internet.
This is an abridged version of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Guide. For the latest version of the full SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Guide, see https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles_for_sap/.
You can find numerous whitepapers, a best-practices guide, and other resources at the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications resource library: https://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/resource-library/.
For documentation on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, see https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/.
For documentation on SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension, see https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-15/.
SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is a bundle of software and services that addresses the specific needs of SAP users. It is the only operating system that is optimized for all SAP software solutions.
Target use cases include:
Unix to Linux migrations and replatforming
SAP cloud deployments
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications consists of software components and service offerings which are described in the following sections. The figure Offerings of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications shows an overview of which software components and services are also available with other products from SUSE (green) and which are exclusively available with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications (blue).
Figure 1-1 Offerings of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications
As depicted in Figure 1-1, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server but contains several additional software components such as SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension, and the installation workflow. These software components are briefly explained below:
The current release is based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP1. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is the most interoperable platform for mission-critical computing, both physical and virtual.
SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension provides tools for flexible, policy-driven clustering and includes resource agents for managing SAP instances and SAP database back-ends.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications supports SAP HANA System Replication using components of SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension and additional resource agents for SAP HANA Scale-Up, Scale-Out, and for managing topology. Additionally, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications ships with a YaST wizard that simplifies the cluster setup.
The installation workflow offers a guided installation path for both the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server operating system and the SAP application. This workflow can be extended by third-party vendors using Supplementary Media. For more information, see Section 2.4, Overview of the Installation Workflow.
ClamSAP integrates the ClamAV anti-malware toolkit into SAP NetWeaver and SAP Mobile Platform applications to enable cross-platform threat detection.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications additionally provides the package HANA-Firewall which integrates with firewalld to provide preconfigured zone setups and rules to make securing SAP HANA as simple as possible.
For information on hardening the underlying operating system, see the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications resource library: https://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/resource-library/. There, find the document OS Security Hardening for SAP HANA.
The system tuning profile provided by sapconf allows you to automatically and comprehensively tune your system as recommended by SAP.
cryptctl allows encrypting sensitive directories using LUKS. Encryption keys are located on a central server which can be located on customer premises. Encrypted partitions are automatically remounted after an unplanned reboot.
To simplify working with software dependencies of SAP applications, SUSE has created patterns that combine relevant dependency RPM packages for specific applications.
ClusterTools2 provides tools that help set up and manage a Corosync/pacemaker cluster.
Subscriptions for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications include Extended Service Pack Overlap Support, which extends the overlap between the support periods of two consecutive service packs by three years. During this period, you receive support and all relevant maintenance updates under the terms of Long Term Service Pack Support (LTSS). This feature is only available with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.
Extended Service Pack Overlap Support allows you to perform service pack migrations within three and a half (3½) years instead of only six months. This enables you to schedule migrations more easily and perform testing before a migration under less restrictive time constraints.
At an additional cost, SUSE also offers Long Term Service Pack Support (LTSS). With LTSS, you receive support for a particular service pack after the ESPOS period ends. Since SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications includes one and a half (1½) years of general support and three years of ESPOS for each service pack, LTSS may only be offered for the last service pack. For more information about the life cycle of SUSE products, see:
Subscriptions for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Priority Support for SAP
Applications, which offers technical support for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications directly from
SAP. The joint support infrastructure, provided by support engineers
from SUSE Technical Support and SAP, is based upon SAP Resolve
and offers seamless communication with both SAP and
One Face to the Customer support model
reduces complexity and lowers the total cost of ownership.
For more information, see SAP Note 1056161: SUSE Priority Support for SAP Applications (https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/1056161).
Read this chapter carefully, as it helps you plan the installation: It lists requirements and helps you collect data about your system.
This section lists minimum hardware requirements for the installation of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications and gives basic guidance on the expected hardware requirements of certain SAP software. For the most up-to-date information about the hardware requirements of SAP software, see the official sizing guidelines at https://service.sap.com/sizing.
IBM POWER servers with PowerKVM compatibility
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications requires at least 41 GB (without swap) of hard disk space for the system volume. In addition to that, reserve an appropriate amount of hard disk space for the swap partition.
To install an SAP application such as SAP NetWeaver, you need at least 200 GB of free disk space in addition to the required space for the operating system for the application's /data partition.
To install SAP HANA, you need either:
An SAP BusinessOne-certified machine
A compatible machine that meets the requirements for SAP HANA TDI (Tailored Datacenter Integration). That is, you need the following amounts of free disk space in addition to the required space for the operating system:
52 GB of free disk space for the partition /usr/sap
Space for three partitions for SAP HANA data: /hana/data (same size as RAM), /hana/log (same size as RAM up to a maximum of 512 GB), and /hana/shared (same size as RAM up to a maximum of 1 TB).
For more information about SAP HANA TDI storage requirements, see:
The SUSE Linux Enterprise Server operating system itself requires a minimum of 1024 MB of total RAM or a minimum of 512 MB of RAM per CPU core (choose whichever is higher).
Any SAP software you install will require additional RAM.
To install SAP HANA, your machine needs a minimum of 24 GB of RAM.
For more information about configuring hardware for SAP HANA, see SAP Note 1944415: Hardware Configuration Guide and Software Installation Guide for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server with SAP HANA and SAP Business One (https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/1944415).
For more information about partitioning, see Section 2.6, Partitioning.
Unlike previous SLE products, the entire SLE 15 SP1 product line can be installed using the same ISO image: The SLE 15 SP1 Installer DVD 1. If you want to install without network access, additionally download the ISO image of SLE 15 SP1 Packages DVD 1.
Both ISO images are available from https://download.suse.com/.
Burn the image/images onto a physical DVD and ensure that it is/they are bootable. Alternatively, use a virtual DVD-ROM device for installation in a virtual machine.
As the migration paths for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server are identical as those for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications, find detailed information in the Upgrade Guide at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/book_sle_upgrade/data/cha_upgrade-paths.html.
The installation workflow of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications consists of the following steps:
Installation of the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server). See Section 3.1, Using the Installation Workflow.
SAP Installation Wizard, part 1: Copying all required SAP media to the local disk or selecting a shared storage medium to use. See Section 4.2, Using the SAP Installation Wizard, in particular .
SAP Installation Wizard, part 2: Collecting all parameters for the actual installation by querying the user interactively. See Section 4.2, Using the SAP Installation Wizard, in particular .
SAP Installation Wizard, part 3: Running the SAP Installer. See Section 4.2, Using the SAP Installation Wizard, in particular .
IMPORTANT: Installation of Only SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
You can choose to only install a base SUSE Linux Enterprise Server system. In that case, only the first step of the installation workflow is executed.
This can be necessary when you want to install an Oracle database on a SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications machine. To do so, install the base product SUSE Linux Enterprise Server first, then install the Oracle database and later convert your installation to SLES for SAP. This is necessary because the installer of Oracle databases queries for the existence of certain files, not all of which are included in a SLES for SAP installation.
Most of these steps do not need to be run immediately after each other, which allows for flexibility in how you install systems. This means that you can prepare a single installation as a first step and then continue from there. For example:
Install the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server) only.
Install the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server), copy SAP media, and collect SAP installation parameters.
Then, create disk images, copy them to other systems, and adjust SAP installation parameters. Finally, finish the installation on each machine individually.
The SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation requires the following data for every physical server:
Network configuration parameters, such as host name, domain, IP address, subnet mask, domain searchlist (DNS), IP for name server, IP for gateway
Administrator (root) password for the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation
The installation of an SAP application generally requires specifying:
SAP Instance Number
A password for the SAP application
Depending on the SAP application you are installing, more parameters may be necessary, such as T-Shirt Sizing or parameters for virtual networking.
The installation of SAP HANA requires specifying:
SAP Instance Number
Whether to enable Multitenant Database Containers (MDC). The multi-tenant support of SAP HANA allows having multiple databases that run as one SAP HANA installation. (To use SAP HANA MDC, you need SAP HANA Life Cycle Manager.)
For a single-tenant installation, choose.
For a multi-tenant instance administrated by one SIDadm user, choose .
For a multi-tenant instance administrated in which each database has its own SIDadm user, choose .
A password for the SAP HANA database
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications creates the partitioning table in two stages:
During the installation of the operating system, partitions for the operating system are created.
A logical volume group (LVG) named /dev/system will be created. This LVG contains two logical volumes (LVs):
/dev/system/root: by default 60 GB to account for the operating system and SAP media
/dev/system/swap: by default 2 GB, avoid setting a smaller size. See also SAP Note 1984787: SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12: Installation notes (https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/1984787).
Additionally, a boot or UEFI partition will be created as necessary.
This part of the partitioning can only be created after the operating system has been installed. That means the partitions are created either in the installation workflow after the reboot or in the running system.
Depending on the product you are installing and your particular use case, the amount of hard disk space necessary can vary.
The following section provides instructions for installing the base operating system. Using the installation workflow, you can install either using a local installation medium or over the network. Alternatively, you can install using AutoYaST.
The installation workflow is a guided installation of the operating system with optimized settings for SAP applications. During the installation workflow, you can choose whether you want to install an SAP application. If so, you will be asked to provide SAP installation media when the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation is finished. You can also choose whether to install third-party extensions.
This section assumes that you are starting the installation from a local medium.
For more information, see Section 2.4, Overview of the Installation Workflow.
This section guides you through the installation of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications operating system.
Starting the OS Installation
On Intel 64/AMD64, boot from the DVD. From the DVD boot menu, select.
On POWER, follow the instructions in the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server documentation, see Deployment Guide, Part Installation Preparation, Chapter Installation on IBM POWER (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/).
While the initial operating system is starting, you can view boot messages by pressing Esc. When this process has completed, the graphical installation workflow will start. As the first step, the installation workflow will check for updates for itself. After that, it will be ready to start the installation.
Select the default system language under.
Figure 3-2 Language, Keyboard and Product Selection
Select the appropriate keyboard layout under. To test whether the selected layout matches your physical keyboard, use the text box .
SLE 15 SP1 provides a single installation ISO for the entire product line. Therefore, you need to select the product to install on this page.
Under, choose .
Read the license agreement. If you agree, select. Proceed with .
Otherwise, cancel the installation with.
If automatic network configuration via DHCP fails, the screenwill open.
If instead the screenappears, your network connection works. To change network settings anyway, click .
When you are finished configuring networking, proceed with.
IMPORTANT: Configure Networking as Recommended by SAP
Make sure to configure the network connection as recommended in the documentation provided to you by SAP.
For information about configuring networking, see Administration Guide, Chapter Basic Networking, Section Configuring a Network Connection with YaST (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/).
On the screen, enter your and . Successful registration is a prerequisite for receiving product updates and the entitlement to technical support.
IMPORTANT: Register at This Step
Make sure to register your system at this step in the installation. Otherwise, you can only install a minimal SLE system and will not receive updates.
To install a full (but not updated) SLES for SAP system without network access during the installation, use the SLE 15 SP1 Packages ISO image from https://download.suse.com. You can then choose on this page and select the SLE 15 SP1 Packages ISO image as an add-on product on the next page.
Figure 3-3 Registration
When asked whether to enable update repositories, choose.
After the system is successfully registered, YaST lists available modules for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications from the SUSE Customer Center. The default selection covers the most common cases. To enable an additional module, activate its entry.
NOTE: Release Notes
From this point on, the Release Notes can be viewed from any screen during the installation process by selecting.
The following screen allows you to choose the. You can choose between:
: Recommended for most situations.
Installation Quick Start, Section Installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/).: Can be necessary in specific cases. This installation path is not covered in this document. For more information about this installation path, see
IMPORTANT: Installing Oracle Databases
To be able to install an Oracle database later, chooseand later convert your installation to SLES for SAP.
This is necessary because the installer for Oracle databases queries for the existence of certain files, not all of which are included in a SLES for SAP installation.
Figure 3-4 System Role
Finishing the OS Installation
Choose whether to enable the following options:
To install an SAP Application along with the system, activate.
To enable RDP access (Remote Desktop Protocol) to this machine, activate.
Review the proposed partition setup for the volumes /dev/system/root and /dev/system/swap. The volume /dev/system/data will be created later, as described in Section 2.6, Partitioning.
To accept the proposed setup without changes, proceed with.
Figure 3-5 Suggested Partitioning
Select the clock and time zone to use on your system. To manually adjust the time or to configure an NTP server for time synchronization, choose Deployment Guide, Chapter Installation with YaST, Section Clock and Time Zone (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/).. For detailed information, see
Type a password for the system administrator account (called root) and repeat the password under . You can use the text box to make sure that all special characters appear correctly.
For more information, see Deployment Guide, Chapter Installation with YaST, Section Password for the System Administrator root (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/).
IMPORTANT: Do Not Forget the root Password
The user root has the permission to carry out all administrative tasks. Without this password, you cannot log in to the system as root. The password entered here cannot be retrieved later.
On the screen, you can review and, if necessary, change several proposed installation settings. Each setting is shown alongside its current configuration. To change parts of the configuration, click the appropriate headline or other underlined items.
Figure 3-6 Installation Settings
When you are satisfied with the system configuration, click.
WARNING: Deletion of Data
The installation process fully or partially overwrites existing data on the disk.
In the installation confirmation box, click.
When the installation of the operating system is finished, the system will reboot automatically:
If you chose to only prepare the system for installation, the system will boot to a desktop login screen.
If you chose to install an SAP application now, the installation will continue after a reboot. Continue with Section 4.0, Installing SAP Applications.
This section guides you through the installation of SAP media sets you received from SAP.
These first steps are only relevant during the installation workflow.
When the system is booted, it displays the screen. Proceed with .
The screenwill now open. This gives you an opportunity to change the network settings.
When you are finished configuring networking, proceed with.
IMPORTANT: Configure Networking as Recommended by SAP
Make sure to configure the network connection according to the documentation of your SAP application.
For information about configuring networking, see Administration Guide, Chapter Basic Networking, Section Configuring a Network Connection with YaST (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/).
(While the next screen loads, thescreen may appear again for a few seconds.)
Choose one of the following options:
Allows installing an SAP application and setting up the system as a server providing SAP installation routines to other systems.
Continue with Section 4.2, Using the SAP Installation Wizard.
Create an SAP HANA file system on SAP BusinessOne-certified hardware.
IMPORTANT: Hardware Requirements
Make sure your machine fulfills the hardware requirements for SAP HANA detailed in Section 2.1, Hardware Requirements. Otherwise, this option will not create a new file system and the installation workflow ends at this point.
Do not install an SAP application and continue to the login screen of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.
Use the SAP Installation Wizard to install an SAP NetWeaver system (including database) or an SAP HANA system.
To install other SAP applications or to create a more advanced SAP HANA setup, directly use one of the installation methods provided by SAP instead of this wizard.
HINT: Installing an SAP Application in a Fully Installed System
This process is documented as it appears during the installation workflow. However, it also applies to the YaST modulewhich is available in the installed system.
To start the SAP Installer, from the desktop, choose, continue in the YaST control center by choosing .
HINT: SAP Installation Wizard Configuration
The SAP Installation Wizard configuration is specified and documented in /etc/sysconfig/sap-installation-wizard. You can change it according to your needs.
In the screen Figure 4-1). The location can either be a local, removable, or remote installation source., provide the (
Figure 4-1 Location of SAP Installation Master
Select the appropriate option from the drop-down box. In the text box, specify the path to your source according to the format given in the following table.
Table 4-1 Media Source Path
Format of Path
a local directory
a locally connected hard disk
a USB mass storage device
a CD or DVD
an NFS share
an SMB share
If you have installed an SAP application from an installation server before or set up your system to be an installation server, you can also directly choose that server as the provider of the Installation Master. To do so, use the drop-down box below.
Under, choose from the following options:
Use this option to set the installation parameters, but not perform the actual installation. With this option, the SAP Installer (SAPinst) will stop without performing the actual SAP product installation. However, the steps that follow fully apply.
Set up this system as an installation server for other SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications systems. The media copied to this installation server will be offered through NFS and can be discovered via Service Location Protocol (SLP).
The SAP Installation Wizard will now copy the Installation Master to your local disk. Depending on the type of Installation Master you selected, the installation will continue differently:
On the screen, provide the location of additional Installation Media you want to install. This can include an SAP kernel, a database, and database exports.
Specify a path to additional Installation Media. For more information about specifying the path, see Table 4-1.
Do not copy additional Installation Media. Choose this option if you do not need additional Installation Media or to install additional Installation Media directly from their source, for example CDs/DVDs or flash disks.
When choosing this option despite your SAP product requiring additional Installation Media, you will later need to provide the SAP Installer (SAPinst) with the relevant paths.
If you chose to copy Installation Media, the SAP Installation Wizard will copy the relevant files to your local hard disk.
Figure 4-2 SAP Installation Wizard: Additional Installation Media
In the screen, under , choose how you want to install the product:
Install an SAP application including its database.
Engines that add functionality to a standard product: SAP TREX, SAP Gateway, and Web Dispatcher.
An SAP application that is separated onto multiple servers.
Installation of SAP NetWeaver in a high-availability setup.
Allows changing the various system properties such as the SAP system ID, database ID, instance number, or host name. This can be used to install the same product in a very similar configuration on different systems.
Figure 4-3 SAP Installation Wizard: Installation Type and Database
If you selected, , or , additionally choose a back-end database under .
You will now see the screen. The products shown depend on the Media Set and Installation Master you received from SAP. From the list, select the product you want to install.
Figure 4-4 SAP Installation Wizard: Choose a Product
NOTE: Difference Between Supplementary Media/Third-Party Media and Additional Software Repositories
Both types of delivery mechanisms allow installing software that is neither part of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications media nor part of your Media Set from SAP. However, the delivery mechanism is different:
Supplementary Media/Third-Party Media is installed using an AutoYaST file which allows creating an installation wizard and custom installation scripts.
Additional software repositories are RPM package repositories that you will remain subscribed to. This means you receive updates for Third-Party Media along with your regular system updates.
On the screen Deployment Guide, Chapter Installing and Removing Software, Section Adding Software Repositories (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-15/)., you can add further software repositories. For example, for add-ons that are packaged as RPM. To do so, click . For more information about adding repositories, see
NOTE: Location of Copied SAP Media
At this point, all data required for the SAP installation has been copied to /data/SAP_CDs (unless you chose to skip the process of copying). Each Installation Medium is copied to a separate directory. You might find the following directory structure, for example:
tux > ls /data/SAP_CDs 742-KERNEL-SAP-Kernel-742 742-UKERNEL-SAP-Unicode-Kernel-742 RDBMS-MAX-DB-LINUX_X86_64 SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-1-3 SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-2-3 SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-3-3
/data/SAP_CDs is the default directory as specified in the /etc/sysconfig/sap-installation-wizard configuration file.
Depending on the product you are installing, one or more dialogs will prompt you to supply values for several configuration parameters for the SAP application you are installing.
Supply the values as described in the documentation provided to you by SAP. Help for the configuration parameters is also available on the left side of the dialog. For more information, see Section 2.5, Required Data for Installing.
Fill out the form (or forms), then proceed with.
Figure 4-5 Product Parameters
When you are done, the SAP Installation Wizard will download additional software packages.
You will be asked whether to continue the installation or prepare another SAP product for installation. If you choose to prepare another SAP product, start from the beginning of this procedure.
When installing SAP HANA on a system that is not certified for SAP HANA and does not meet the minimum hardware requirements for SAP HANA TDI (Tailored Datacenter Integration), you will be asked whether to continue. If you receive this message unexpectedly, check Section 2.1, Hardware Requirements and the sizing guidelines from SAP at https://service.sap.com/sizing.
Otherwise, continue with.
The following steps differ depending on the type of SAP application you are installing:
When installing an SAP HANA database, SAP HANA will now be installed without further question.
When installing an SAP NetWeaver application, the actual installation will be performed using the SAP Installer (SAPinst). After a few seconds, SAP Installer will open automatically.
Follow the SAP Installer as described in the documentation provided by SAP. Most configuration parameters are correctly filled already.
Figure 4-6 SAP Installer: Defining Parameters
HINT: Installation Log Files
If the installation of the SAP application fails, refer to the installation log files. They are located in /var/adm/autoinstall. Failed installations are recorded in files with names ending in .err.
The final screen is.
To create an AutoYaST file for this installation, activate /root/autoinst.xml.. The AutoYaST file will be placed in
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If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
Include an unaltered copy of this License.
Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.
Copyright © 2010– SUSE LLC and contributors. All rights reserved.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or (at your
option) version 1.3; with the Invariant Section being this copyright notice
and license. A copy of the license version 1.2 is included in the section
GNU Free Documentation License.
For SUSE trademarks, see http://www.suse.com/company/legal/. All third-party trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Trademark symbols (®, ™ etc.) denote trademarks of SUSE and its affiliates. Asterisks (*) denote third-party trademarks.
All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail. However, this does not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither SUSE LLC, its affiliates, the authors nor the translators shall be held liable for possible errors or the consequences thereof.