6.1 Using Zypper

Zypper is a command line package manager for installing, updating and removing packages a well as for managing repositories. It is especially useful for accomplishing remote software management tasks or managing software from shell scripts.

6.1.1 General Usage

The general syntax of Zypper is:

zypper [--global-options] COMMAND  [--command-options] [arguments]

The components enclosed in brackets are not required. See zypper help for a list of general options and all commands. To get help for a specific command, type zypper help COMMAND.

Zypper Commands

The simplest way to execute Zypper is to type its name, followed by a command. For example, to apply all needed patches to the system, use:

sudo zypper patch
Global Options

Additionally, you can choose from one or more global options by typing them immediately before the command:

sudo zypper --non-interactive patch

In the above example, the option --non-interactive means that the command is run without asking anything (automatically applying the default answers).

Command-Specific Options

To use options that are specific to a particular command, type them immediately after the command:

sudo zypper patch --auto-agree-with-licenses

In the above example, --auto-agree-with-licenses is used to apply all needed patches to a system without you being asked to confirm any licenses. Instead, license will be accepted automatically.

Arguments

Some commands require one or more arguments. For example, when using the command install, you need to specify which package or which packages you want to install:

sudo zypper install mplayer

Some options also require a single argument. The following command will list all known patterns:

zypper search -t pattern

You can combine all of the above. For example, the following command will install the aspell-de and aspell-fr packages from the factory repository while being verbose:

sudo zypper -v install --from factory aspell-de aspell-fr

The --from option makes sure to keep all repositories enabled (for solving any dependencies) while requesting the package from the specified repository.

Most Zypper commands have a dry-run option that does a simulation of the given command. It can be used for test purposes.

sudo zypper remove --dry-run MozillaFirefox

Zypper supports the global --userdata STRING option. You can specify a string with this option, which gets written to Zypper's log files and plug-ins (such as the Btrfs plug-in). It can be used to mark and identify transactions in log files.

sudo zypper --userdata STRING patch

6.1.2 Installing and Removing Software with Zypper

To install or remove packages, use the following commands:

sudo zypper install PACKAGE_NAME
sudo zypper remove PACKAGE_NAME

WARNING: Do Not Remove Mandatory System Packages

Do not remove mandatory system packages like glibc , zypper , kernel . If they are removed, the system can become unstable or stop working altogether.

Selecting Which Packages to Install or Remove

There are various ways to address packages with the commands zypper install and zypper remove.

By Exact Package Name
sudo zypper install MozillaFirefox
By Exact Package Name and Version Number
sudo zypper install MozillaFirefox-52.2
By Repository Alias and Package Name
sudo zypper install mozilla:MozillaFirefox

Where mozilla is the alias of the repository from which to install.

By Package Name Using Wild Cards

You can select all packages that have names starting or ending with a certain string. Use wild cards with care, especially when removing packages. The following command will install all packages starting with Moz:

sudo zypper install 'Moz*'

HINT: Removing all -debuginfo Packages

When debugging a problem, you sometimes need to temporarily install a lot of -debuginfo packages which give you more information about running processes. After your debugging session finishes and you need to clean the environment, run the following:

sudo zypper remove '*-debuginfo'
By Capability

For example, if you want to install a Perl module without knowing the name of the package, capabilities come in handy:

sudo zypper install firefox
By Capability, Hardware Architecture, or Version

Together with a capability, you can specify a hardware architecture and a version:

  • The name of the desired hardware architecture is appended to the capability after a full stop. For example, to specify the AMD64/Intel 64 architectures (which in Zypper is named x86_64), use:

    sudo zypper install 'firefox.x86_64'
  • Versions must be appended to the end of the string and must be preceded by an operator: < (lesser than), <= (lesser than or equal), = (equal), >= (greater than or equal), > (greater than).

    sudo zypper install 'firefox>=52.2'
  • You can also combine a hardware architecture and version requirement:

    sudo zypper install 'firefox.x86_64>=52.2'
By Path to the RPM file

You can also specify a local or remote path to a package:

sudo zypper install /tmp/install/MozillaFirefox.rpm
sudo zypper install http://download.example.com/MozillaFirefox.rpm

Combining Installation and Removal of Packages

To install and remove packages simultaneously, use the +/- modifiers. To install emacs and simultaneously remove vim , use:

sudo zypper install emacs -vim

To remove emacs and simultaneously install vim , use:

sudo zypper remove emacs +vim

To prevent the package name starting with the - being interpreted as a command option, always use it as the second argument. If this is not possible, precede it with --:

sudo zypper install -emacs +vim       # Wrong
sudo zypper install vim -emacs        # Correct
sudo zypper install -- -emacs +vim    # Correct
sudo zypper remove emacs +vim         # Correct

Cleaning Up Dependencies of Removed Packages

If (together with a certain package), you automatically want to remove any packages that become unneeded after removing the specified package, use the --clean-deps option:

sudo zypper rm PACKAGE_NAME --clean-deps

Using Zypper in Scripts

By default, Zypper asks for a confirmation before installing or removing a selected package, or when a problem occurs. You can override this behavior using the --non-interactive option. This option must be given before the actual command (install, remove, and patch), as can be seen in the following:

sudo zypper --non-interactive install PACKAGE_NAME

This option allows the use of Zypper in scripts and cron jobs.

Installing or Downloading Source Packages

To install the corresponding source package of a package, use:

zypper source-install PACKAGE_NAME

When executed as root, the default location to install source packages is /usr/src/packages/ and ~/rpmbuild when run as user. These values can be changed in your local rpm configuration.

This command will also install the build dependencies of the specified package. If you do not want this, add the switch -D:

sudo zypper source-install -D PACKAGE_NAME

To install only the build dependencies use -d.

sudo zypper source-install -d PACKAGE_NAME

Of course, this will only work if you have the repository with the source packages enabled in your repository list (it is added by default, but not enabled). See Section 6.1.5, Managing Repositories with Zypper for details on repository management.

A list of all source packages available in your repositories can be obtained with:

zypper search -t srcpackage

You can also download source packages for all installed packages to a local directory. To download source packages, use:

zypper source-download

The default download directory is /var/cache/zypper/source-download. You can change it using the --directory option. To only show missing or extraneous packages without downloading or deleting anything, use the --status option. To delete extraneous source packages, use the --delete option. To disable deleting, use the --no-delete option.

Installing Packages from Disabled Repositories

Normally you can only install or refresh packages from enabled repositories. The --plus-content TAG option helps you specify repositories to be refreshed, temporarily enabled during the current Zypper session, and disabled after it completes.

For example, to enable repositories that may provide additional -debuginfo or -debugsource packages, use --plus-content debug. You can specify this option multiple times.

To temporarily enable such 'debug' repositories to install a specific -debuginfo package, use the option as follows:

sudo zypper --plus-content debug \
   install "debuginfo(build-id)=eb844a5c20c70a59fc693cd1061f851fb7d046f4"

The build-id string is reported by gdb for missing debuginfo packages.

Utilities

To verify whether all dependencies are still fulfilled and to repair missing dependencies, use:

zypper verify

In addition to dependencies that must be fulfilled, some packages recommend other packages. These recommended packages are only installed if actually available and installable. In case recommended packages were made available after the recommending package has been installed (by adding additional packages or hardware), use the following command:

sudo zypper install-new-recommends

This command is very useful after plugging in a Web cam or Wi-Fi device. It will install drivers for the device and related software, if available. Drivers and related software are only installable if certain hardware dependencies are fulfilled.

6.1.3 Updating Software with Zypper

There are three different ways to update software using Zypper: by installing patches, by installing a new version of a package or by updating the entire distribution. The latter is achieved with zypper dist-upgrade. Upgrading SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is discussed in Section 18.0, Upgrading SUSE Linux Enterprise, (↑Deployment Guide) .

Installing All Needed Patches

To install all officially released patches that apply to your system, run:

sudo zypper patch

All patches available from repositories configured on your computer are checked for their relevance to your installation. If they are relevant (and not classified as optional or feature), they are installed immediately. Note that the official update repository is only available after registering your SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation.

If a patch that is about to be installed includes changes that require a system reboot, you will be warned before.

The plain zypper patch command does not apply patches from third party repositories. To update also the third party repositories, use the with-update command option as follows:

sudo zypper patch --with update

To install also optional patches, use:

sudo zypper patch --with-optional

To install all patches relating to a specific Bugzilla issue, use:

sudo zypper patch --bugzilla=NUMBER

To install all patches relating to a specific CVE database entry, use:

sudo zypper patch --cve=NUMBER

For example, to install a security patch with the CVE number CVE-2010-2713, execute:

sudo zypper patch --cve=CVE-2010-2713

To install only patches which affect Zypper and the package management itself, use:

sudo zypper patch --updatestack-only

Bear in mind that other command options that would also update other repositories will be dropped if you use the updatestack-only command option.

Listing Patches

To find out whether patches are available, Zypper allows viewing the following information:

Number of Needed Patches

To list the number of needed patches (patches that apply to your system but are not yet installed), use patch-check:

zypper patch-check
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
5 patches needed (1 security patch)

This command can be combined with the --updatestack-only option to list only the patches which affect Zypper and the package management itself.

List of Needed Patches

To list all needed patches (patches that apply to your system but are not yet installed), use list-patches:

zypper list-patches
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...

Repository     | Name        | Version | Category | Status  | Summary
---------------+-------------+---------+----------+---------+---------
SLES12-Updates | SUSE-2014-8 | 1       | security | needed  | openssl: Update for OpenSSL
List of All Patches

To list all patches available for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, regardless of whether they are already installed or apply to your installation, use zypper patches.

It is also possible to list and install patches relevant to specific issues. To list specific patches, use the zypper list-patches command with the following options:

By Bugzilla Issues

To list all needed patches that relate to Bugzilla issues, use the option --bugzilla.

To list patches for a specific bug, you can also specify a bug number: --bugzilla=NUMBER. To search for patches relating to multiple Bugzilla issues, add commas between the bug numbers, for example:

zypper list-patches --bugzilla=972197,956917
By CVE Number

To list all needed patches that relate to an entry in the CVE database (Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures), use the option --cve.

To list patches for a specific CVE database entry, you can also specify a CVE number: --cve=NUMBER. To search for patches relating to multiple CVE database entries, add commas between the CVE numbers, for example:

zypper list-patches --bugzilla=CVE-2016-2315,CVE-2016-2324

To list all patches regardless of whether they are needed, use the option --all additionally. For example, to list all patches with a CVE number assigned, use:

zypper list-patches --all --cve
Issue | No.           | Patch             | Category    | Severity  | Status
------+---------------+-------------------+-------------+-----------+----------
cve   | CVE-2015-0287 | SUSE-SLE-Module.. | recommended | moderate  | needed
cve   | CVE-2014-3566 | SUSE-SLE-SERVER.. | recommended | moderate  | not needed
[...]

Installing New Package Versions

If a repository contains only new packages, but does not provide patches, zypper patch does not show any effect. To update all installed packages with newer available versions (while maintaining system integrity), use:

sudo zypper update

To update individual packages, specify the package with either the update or install command:

sudo zypper update PACKAGE_NAME
sudo zypper install PACKAGE_NAME

A list of all new installable packages can be obtained with the command:

zypper list-updates

Note that this command only lists packages that match the following criteria:

  • has the same vendor like the already installed package,

  • is provided by repositories with at least the same priority than the already installed package,

  • is installable (all dependencies are satisfied).

A list of all new available packages (regardless whether installable or not) can be obtained with:

sudo zypper list-updates --all

To find out why a new package cannot be installed, use the zypper install or zypper update command as described above.

Identifying Orphaned Packages

Whenever you remove a repository from Zypper or upgrade your system, some packages can get in an orphaned state. These orphaned packages belong to no active repository anymore. The following command gives you a list of these:

sudo zypper packages --orphaned

With this list, you can decide if a package is still needed or can be removed safely.

6.1.4 Identifying Processes and Services Using Deleted Files

When patching, updating or removing packages, there may be running processes on the system which continue to use files having been deleted by the update or removal. Use zypper ps to list processes using deleted files. In case the process belongs to a known service, the service name is listed, making it easy to restart the service. By default zypper ps shows a table:

zypper ps
PID   | PPID | UID | User  | Command      | Service      | Files
------+------+-----+-------+--------------+--------------+-------------------
814   | 1    | 481 | avahi | avahi-daemon | avahi-daemon | /lib64/ld-2.19.s->
      |      |     |       |              |              | /lib64/libdl-2.1->
      |      |     |       |              |              | /lib64/libpthrea->
      |      |     |       |              |              | /lib64/libc-2.19->
[...]
  • PID: ID of the process
  • PPID: ID of the parent process
  • UID: ID of the user running the process
  • Login: Login name of the user running the process
  • Command: Command used to execute the process
  • Service: Service name (only if command is associated with a system service)
  • Files: The list of the deleted files

The output format of zypper ps can be controlled as follows:

zypper ps-s

Create a short table not showing the deleted files.

zypper ps -s
PID   | PPID | UID  | User    | Command      | Service
------+------+------+---------+--------------+--------------
814   | 1    | 481  | avahi   | avahi-daemon | avahi-daemon
817   | 1    | 0    | root    | irqbalance   | irqbalance
1567  | 1    | 0    | root    | sshd         | sshd
1761  | 1    | 0    | root    | master       | postfix
1764  | 1761 | 51   | postfix | pickup       | postfix
1765  | 1761 | 51   | postfix | qmgr         | postfix
2031  | 2027 | 1000 | tux     | bash         |
zypper ps-ss

Show only processes associated with a system service.

PID   | PPID | UID  | User    | Command      | Service
------+------+------+---------+--------------+--------------
814   | 1    | 481  | avahi   | avahi-daemon | avahi-daemon
817   | 1    | 0    | root    | irqbalance   | irqbalance
1567  | 1    | 0    | root    | sshd         | sshd
1761  | 1    | 0    | root    | master       | postfix
1764  | 1761 | 51   | postfix | pickup       | postfix
1765  | 1761 | 51   | postfix | qmgr         | postfix
zypper ps-sss

Only show system services using deleted files.

avahi-daemon
irqbalance
postfix
sshd
zypper ps--print "systemctl status %s"

Show the commands to retrieve status information for services which might need a restart.

systemctl status avahi-daemon
systemctl status irqbalance
systemctl status postfix
systemctl status sshd

For more information about service handling refer to Section 13.0, The systemd Daemon.

6.1.5 Managing Repositories with Zypper

All installation or patch commands of Zypper rely on a list of known repositories. To list all repositories known to the system, use the command:

zypper repos

The result will look similar to the following output:

Example 6-1 Zypper—List of Known Repositories

zypper repos
# | Alias        | Name          | Enabled | Refresh
--+--------------+---------------+---------+--------
1 | SLEHA-12-GEO | SLEHA-12-GEO  | Yes     | No
2 | SLEHA-12     | SLEHA-12      | Yes     | No
3 | SLES12       | SLES12        | Yes     | No

When specifying repositories in various commands, an alias, URI or repository number from the zypper repos command output can be used. A repository alias is a short version of the repository name for use in repository handling commands. Note that the repository numbers can change after modifying the list of repositories. The alias will never change by itself.

By default, details such as the URI or the priority of the repository are not displayed. Use the following command to list all details:

zypper repos -d

Adding Repositories

To add a repository, run

sudo zypper addrepo URI ALIAS

URI can either be an Internet repository, a network resource, a directory or a CD or DVD (see http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Libzypp_URIs for details). The ALIAS is a shorthand and unique identifier of the repository. You can freely choose it, with the only exception that it needs to be unique. Zypper will issue a warning if you specify an alias that is already in use.

Refreshing Repositories

zypper enables you to fetch changes in packages from configured repositories. To fetch the changes, run:

sudo zypper refresh

NOTE: Default Behavior of zypper

By default, some commands perform refresh automatically, so you do not need to run the command explicitly.

The refresh command enables you to view changes also in disabled repositories, by using the --plus-content option:

sudo zypper --plus-content refresh

This option fetches changes in repositories, but keeps the disabled repositories in the same state—disabled.

Removing Repositories

To remove a repository from the list, use the command zypper removerepo together with the alias or number of the repository you want to delete. For example, to remove the repository SLEHA-12-GEO from Example 6-1, use one of the following commands:

sudo zypper removerepo 1
sudo zypper removerepo "SLEHA-12-GEO"

Modifying Repositories

Enable or disable repositories with zypper modifyrepo. You can also alter the repository's properties (such as refreshing behavior, name or priority) with this command. The following command will enable the repository named updates, turn on auto-refresh and set its priority to 20:

sudo zypper modifyrepo -er -p 20 'updates'

Modifying repositories is not limited to a single repository—you can also operate on groups:

  • -a: all repositories
  • -l: local repositories
  • -t: remote repositories
  • -m TYPE: repositories of a certain type (where TYPE can be one of the following: http, https, ftp, cd, dvd, dir, file, cifs, smb, nfs, hd, iso)

To rename a repository alias, use the renamerepo command. The following example changes the alias from Mozilla Firefox to firefox:

sudo zypper renamerepo 'Mozilla Firefox' firefox

6.1.6 Querying Repositories and Packages with Zypper

Zypper offers various methods to query repositories or packages. To get lists of all products, patterns, packages or patches available, use the following commands:

zypper products
zypper patterns
zypper packages
zypper patches

To query all repositories for certain packages, use search. To get information regarding particular packages, use the info command.

zypper search Usage

The zypper search command works on package names, or, optionally, on package summaries and descriptions. String wrapped in / are interpreted as regular expressions. By default, the search is not case-sensitive.

Simple search for a package name containing fire
zypper search "fire"
Simple search for the exact package MozillaFirefox
zypper search --match-exact "MozillaFirefox"
Also search in package descriptions and summaries
zypper search -d fire
Only display packages not already installed
zypper search -u fire
Display packages containing the string fir not followed be e
zypper se "/fir[^e]/"

zypper what-provides Usage

To search for packages which provide a special capability, use the command what-provides. For example, if you want to know which package provides the Perl module SVN::Core, use the following command:

zypper what-provides 'perl(SVN::Core)'

The what-provides PACKAGE_NAME is similar to rpm -q --whatprovides PACKAGE_NAME, but RPM is only able to query the RPM database (that is the database of all installed packages). Zypper, on the other hand, will tell you about providers of the capability from any repository, not only those that are installed.

zypper info Usage

To query single packages, use info with an exact package name as an argument. This displays detailed information about a package. In case the package name does not match any package name from repositories, the command outputs detailed information for non-package matches. If you request a specific type (by using the -t option) and the type does not exist, the command outputs other available matches but without detailed information.

If you specify a source package, the command displays binary packages built from the source package. If you specify a binary package, the command outputs the source packages used to build the binary package.

To also show what is required/recommended by the package, use the options --requires and --recommends:

zypper info --requires MozillaFirefox

6.1.7 Configuring Zypper

Zypper now comes with a configuration file, allowing you to permanently change Zypper's behavior (either system-wide or user-specific). For system-wide changes, edit /etc/zypp/zypper.conf. For user-specific changes, edit ~/.zypper.conf. If ~/.zypper.conf does not yet exist, you can use /etc/zypp/zypper.conf as a template: copy it to ~/.zypper.conf and adjust it to your liking. Refer to the comments in the file for help about the available options.

6.1.8 Troubleshooting

If you have trouble accessing packages from configured repositories (for example, Zypper cannot find a certain package even though you know it exists in one the repositories), refreshing the repositories may help:

sudo zypper refresh

If that does not help, try

sudo zypper refresh -fdb

This forces a complete refresh and rebuild of the database, including a forced download of raw metadata.

6.1.9 Zypper Rollback Feature on Btrfs File System

If the Btrfs file system is used on the root partition and snapper is installed, Zypper automatically calls snapper when committing changes to the file system to create appropriate file system snapshots. These snapshots can be used to revert any changes made by Zypper. See Section 7.0, System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper for more information.

6.1.10 For More Information

For more information on managing software from the command line, enter zypper help, zypper help  COMMAND or refer to the zypper(8) man page. For a complete and detailed command reference, cheat sheets with the most important commands, and information on how to use Zypper in scripts and applications, refer to http://en.opensuse.org/SDB:Zypper_usage. A list of software changes for the latest SUSE Linux Enterprise Server version can be found at http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Zypper versions.