Moving Containers to Production - A Short Checklist | SUSE Communities

Moving Containers to Production – A Short Checklist


containers to production checklistIf
you’re anything like me, you’ve been watching the increasing growth of
container-based solutions with considerable interest, and you’ve
probably been experimenting with a couple of ideas. At some point in the
future, perhaps you’d like to take those experiments and actually put
them out there for people to use. Why wait? It’s a new year, and there
is no time like the present to take some action on that goal.
Experimenting is great, and you learn a great deal, but often in the
midst of trying out new things, hacking different technologies together
and making it all work, things get introduced into our code which
probably shouldn’t be put into a production environment. Sometimes,
having a checklist to follow when we’re excited and nervous about
deploying new applications out into the wild can help ensure that we
don’t do things we shouldn’t. Consider this article as the start of a
checklist to ready your Docker applications for prime time.

Item 1: Check Your Sources

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Rancher Years ago, I worked on a software project with a
fairly large team. We started running into a problem—Once a week, at 2
PM on a Tuesday afternoon, our build would start failing. At first we
blamed the last guy to check his code in, but then it mysteriously
started working before he could identify and check-in a fix. And then
the next week it happened again. It took a little research, but we
traced the source of the failure to a dependency in the project which
had been set to always pull the latest snapshot release from the vendor,
and it turned out that the vendor had a habit of releasing a new, albeit
buggy version of their library around 2 PM on Tuesday afternoons. Using
the latest and greatest versions of a library or a base image can be fun
in an experiment, but it’s risky when you’re relying on it in a
production environment. Scan through your Docker configuration files,
and check for two things.

First, ensure that you have your source images tied to a stable
version of the image. Any occurrence of :latest in your Docker
configuration files should fail the smell test.

Second, if you are using Dockerhub as your image repository, use the
official image wherever possible. Among the reasons for doing this:
“These repositories have clear documentation, promote best practices,
and are designed for the most common use case.” ([Official Repositories
on Docker

Item 2: Keep your Secrets…Secret

As Gandalf asked, “Is it secret? Is it safe?” Our applications have a
need for secret information. Most applications have a need for a
combination of database credentials, API tokens, SSH keys and other
necessary information which is not appropriate, or advisable for a
public audience. Secret storage is one of the biggest weaknesses of
container technology. Some solutions which have been implemented, but
are not recommended are:

Baking the secrets into the image. Anyone with access to the
registry can potentially access the secrets, and if you have to update
them, this can be a rather tedious process.

Using volume mounts. Unfortunately, this keeps all of your secrets
in a single and static location, and usually requires them to be stored
in plain text.

Using environment variables. These are easily accessible by all
processes using the image, and are usually easily viewed with Docker

Encrypted solutions. Secrets are stored in an encrypted state, with
decryption keys on the host machines. While your passwords and other key
data elements aren’t stored in plain text, they are fairly easy to
locate, and the decryption methods identified.

The best solution at this point is to use a secrets store, such as
Vaultby HashiCorp or
Keywhiz from Square. Implementation
is typically API-based and very reliable. Once implemented, a secret
store provides a virtual filesystem to an application, which it can use
to access secured information. Each store provides documentation on how
to set up, test and deploy a secret store for your application.

Item 3: Secure the Perimeter

A compelling reason for the adoption of a container-based solution is
the ability to share resources on a host machine. What we gain in ease
of access to the host machine’s resources, however, we lose in the
ability to separate the processes from a single container from those of
another. Great care needs to be taken to ensure that the user under
which a containers application is started has the minimum required
privileges on the underlying system. In addition, it is important that
we establish a secure platform on which to launch our containers. We
must ensure that the environment is protected wherever possible from the
threat of external influences. Admittedly this has less to do with the
containers themselves, and more with the environment into which they are
deployed, but it is important nonetheless.

Item 4: Make Sure to Keep an Eye on Things

The final item on this initial checklist for production-readying your
application is to come up with a monitoring solution. Along with secret
management, monitoring is an area related to container-based
applications which is still actively evolving. When you’re experimenting
with an application, you typically don’t run it under much significant
load, or in a multiple-user environment. Additionally, for some reason,
our users insist on finding new and innovative ways to leverage the
solutions we provide, which is both a blessing and a curse. This article
[Comparing monitoring options for Docker

provides information and comparison between a number of monitoring
options, as does a more recent online meetup on the topic.
The landscape for Docker monitoring solutions is still under continued

Go Forth and Containerize in an Informed Manner

The container revolution is without a doubt one of the most exciting and
disruptive developments in the world of software development in recent
years. Docker is the tool which all the cool kids are using, and let’s
be honest, we all want to be part of that group. When you’re ready to
take your project from an experimental phase into production, make sure
you’re proceeding in an informed manner. The technology is rapidly
evolving, and offers many advantages over traditional technologies, but
be sure that you do your due diligence and confirm that you’re using the
right tool for the right job. Mike Mackrory is a Global citizen who
has settled down in the Pacific Northwest – for now. By day he works as
a Senior Engineer on a Quality Engineering team and by night he writes,
consults on several web based projects and runs a marginally successful
eBay sticker business. When he’s not tapping on the keys, he can be
found hiking, fishing and exploring both the urban and the rural
landscape with his kids.

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