Introduction to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry PiSUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM 12 SP3
This guide contains an overview of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry Pi platform and will guide you through the setup procedure.
1.0 Platform Overview
To be able to use SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry Pi, an Arm compatible Raspberry Pi* is required. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3 for ARM is tested to work on a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B board.
1.1 Technical Details of the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers based on a System on a Chip (SoC) by Broadcom*, featuring various peripherals on the board.
Figure 1 Overview of the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Connectors, © Efa / English Wikipedia / CC BY-SA 3.0
Figure 2 Photo of the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Connectors, © Evan-Amos / Own work / Public Domain
- Selected Features of the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
The Broadcom BCM2837 SoC includes a quad-core Arm* Cortex*-A53 Application Processor supporting the ARMv8 32-bit and 64-bit instruction sets. With the default configuration, it is clocked up to 1.2 GHz.
1024 MiB DDR2 memory mounted on the back of the board.
Broadcom* VideoCore* IV providing OpenGL* ES 2.0 support. Displays can be connected over HDMI or composite (TRRS jack).
A USB Ethernet adapter on the board provides 10/100 MBit/s Ethernet.
The BCM43438 chip supports IEEE-802.11b, IEEE-802.11g and IEEE-802.11n in the 2.4 GHz band. It also provides Bluetooth 2.0-4.1 (Low Energy).
The microSDHC card slot allows for a memory card to be inserted as primary boot medium.
The Raspberry Pi's main power source is the Micro USB connector. If your Raspberry Pi comes with a power supply, it is recommended to use the bundled power supply only.
A total of four USB 2.0 ports is available.
A 0.1 inch multi-function pin header is also available. Note that not all functionality of this header is exposed in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry Pi.
1.2 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM 12 SP3
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM 12 SP3 is the first fully supported commercial Linux operating system release available for the Raspberry Pi. You can purchase subscriptions which entitle you to receive all released bug and security fixes, feature updates, and technical assistance from SUSE's worldwide support. Learn more about subscription and support options at https://www.suse.com/support/programs/subscriptions/?id=SUSE_Linux_Enterprise_Server
NOTE: Trial Version
If you want to try out SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM 12 SP3 on the Raspberry Pi, SUSE will provide you with a trial version. This gives you access to free patches and updates for a period of 60 days. You must sign in to the SUSE Customer Center at https://scc.suse.com/login using your Customer Center account credentials to receive this free offer. If you do not have a Customer Center account, you must create one to take advantage of the trial version.
Minimum System Requirements for Installation
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
SD Card with at least 8GB capacity
USB keyboard, mouse
HDMI cable and monitor
Power supply with at least 2.5A capacity
Differences Compared to the Previous Release SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for the Raspberry Pi
The previous release of
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for the Raspberry Pi (based
on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP2) was intended for
experimental users of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server on the Raspberry Pi
platform. It included several large packages such as the C
compiler and development tools. The commercial release of the
Raspberry Pi image of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM is different in
It is based on the later code base from SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3.
It uses the normal SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM support channels instead of a special purpose
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for the Raspberry Pichannel.
The image is significantly smaller than the previous release to allow the installation to be tailored for the actual use.
Additional packages can be installed by YaST or Zypper after registration. Since many of our customers are interested in using SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on a Raspberry Pi for industrial monitoring and digital signage, it makes more sense to provide a minimal image that can easily be expanded.
Differences Compared to Raspbian
Raspbian is the de-facto default distribution for the Raspberry Pi. The following paragraphs provide a short overview of differences between SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry Pi and Raspbian.
- Based on Upstream Kernel
Raspbian uses a kernel with modifications especially for the Raspberry Pi. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM uses the default SUSE Linux Enterprise kernel for AArch64 which is derived from the official mainline kernel.
- AArch64 Instruction Set
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry Pi is the first distribution for the Raspberry Pi using the AArch64 instruction set.
- Boot Process
In Raspbian, the kernel is loaded directly. This is not supported by SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM, where the U-Boot boot loader is used to provide an EFI boot environment. A GRUB2 EFI binary is chainloaded to provide a graphical boot screen.
- Root Filesystem
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry Pi uses Btrfs as file system for the root partition. Compression is enabled by default for better SD card performance.
YaST is the installation and configuration framework for SUSE Linux Enterprise. It is popular for its easy use, flexible graphical interfaces and the capability to customize your system quickly during and after the installation. YaST can be used to configure your entire system: You can configure hardware, set up networking, manage system services and tune your security settings. All these tasks can be reached from the YaST control center. To start it, choose YaST in the menu or run the command xdg-su -c yast2. You will be prompted to enter the password of the root user.
Figure 3 The YaST Control Center
When started, YaST shows an overview of available modules (Figure 3). Simply click an icon to open a module.
Zypper is the package manager for SUSE Linux Enterprise. It is the tool for installing, updating and removing packages and for managing repositories.
The general syntax for Zypper invocations is:
zypper [global-options] command [command-options][arguments] ...
NOTE: Short Command Form
For most commands, there is both a short and a long form. An overview is available with zypper --help.
- Installing a package
zypper install mplayer
- Removing a package
zypper remove mplayer
- List available patches
- Install available patches
NOTE: Installing Software Updates
The recommended way to install available software updates
is using the YaST Online Updater. To start it, choose
Online Update in
Desktop Apps in the IceWM menu.
- Graphics not hardware-accelerated
X.Org hardware acceleration is disabled to improve system stability and reliability.
To enable it, comment out the following line in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-kms.conf: Option "AccelMethod" "none" by prefixing it with
For other limitations refer to the online version of the Release Notes at https://www.suse.com/releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/12-SP3/.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for the Raspberry Pi is distributed as XZ-compressed image file for microSD cards. This section will guide you through the process of preparing the card to the first boot. If you already have a microSD card containing the image, you can skip this section and go straight to Section 3.0, Booting for the First Time.
NOTE: SD Card Space Requirements
It is recommended to use a card with a capacity of at least 8 GB.
WARNING: All Data on the Card will be Lost!
By following the procedure below, all data on the SD card will be overwritten and therefore irrevocably lost! Be very careful when choosing the destination device of the image writing process!
2.1 Preparing the Card on Linux
Before and after you plug in the SD card, run the lsblk command. Between the two runs of lsblk, there should be a difference of one or more lines. The first column and first row is the name of the node representing the SD card in your system. To write the image to the card, use the dd command:
xz -cd IMAGE | dd of=/dev/SDCARDDEV bs=4096
Example 1 Writing the Image to the Card using dd
This command decompresses the image SLE-12-SP3-Server-RaspberryPi3.aarch64-GM.raw.xz to the SD card mmcblk0.
xz -cd SLE-12-SP3-Server-RaspberryPi3.aarch64-GM.raw.xz | dd of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=4096
2.2 Preparing the Card on Microsoft Windows* Operating Systems
The following steps will guide you through the installation of the image onto the SD card on Microsoft Windows operating systems. You need to meet these prerequisites:
Open the downloaded image using Easy 7-Zip. Extract the file content into a directory with sufficient free space.
Run Win32 Disk Imager and select the extracted file as. Then, choose the correct drive letter as . Click to start the procedure.
NOTE: Finding the correct device
If you are unsure which drive letter to choose from in the list, remove the SD card and run Win32 Disk Imager again. The option that disappeared is the right target device.
2.3 Preparing the Card on macOS*
The following steps will guide you through the installation of the image onto the SD card on macOS. You need to meet these prerequisites:
Latest available image of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry Pi
The Unarchiver from http://unarchiver.c3.cx/unarchiver
Open Finder at the location where the downloaded image is stored. Use the The Unarchiver instead of the default Archive utility and extract the content into a directory with sufficient free space.selection to choose
Open a Terminal window and change into the destination directory of the uncompressed image. Enter diskutil list before and after the SD card is inserted to find out which device to use.
Run diskutil unmountDisk /dev/diskX, where X is the disk number from the previous step.
Run sudo dd bs=4096 if=imageFile.raw of=/dev/diskX, where X is the disk number and imageFile.raw is the name of the uncompressed image.
sudo dd bs=4096 if=SLE-12-SP3-Server-RaspberryPi3.aarch64-GM.raw.xz of=/dev/disk4 Password: 5550+0 records in 5550+0 records out 5819596800 bytes transferred in 1131.796649 secs (5141910 bytes/sec)
Now unmount the disk (which is now labelled) as usual.
3.0 Booting for the First Time
After insertion of the prepared microSD card, connect a display, Ethernet and USB keyboard and mouse first, then provide power over Micro USB. After a few seconds you should be able to see a few lines of text on the screen. If that is not the case, recheck the connection to the display.
NOTE: Operation Without Mouse
YaST can be used without a mouse by only using the keyboard. Every GUI element has an accelerator configured, visible as underlined letter. To activate such an accelerator, press the letter together with Alt.
On the first boot, the system will expand to fill the entire SD card, so be patient.
3.1 Initial System Setup with YaST
After a few minutes, YaST will lead you through the initial system setup.
First, the system language and keyboard layout needs to be configured. Use the drop-down boxes and click.
Selecton this screen.
Read the License Agreement. You need to accept the license by selectingand choosing .
Select the time zone either by clicking the area in the map or selecting region and zone in the drop-down boxes.
If the time and date shown at the bottom on the screen are incorrect, setup the Network Time Protocol client by following these steps:
Clickto open the NTPD configuration.
Clickto synchronize date and time with NTPD.
After the synchronization completed, clickto return to the Time and Date overview.
On this page, you can configure a default user account.
NOTE: Automatic Login not supported
Automatic Login is not supported by xdm, the default display manager. Install gdm after the installation to make it work.
If you chose to skip the previous step or if you chose not to set a root password, you will be asked to provide one now. Do not forget what you enter here, you will need it for administration!
On this screen you need to enter your E-mail address and the registration code you received. You can also choose to.
NOTE: Skipping the Registration
If you choose to skip the registration here, you will not receive updates or patches until you registered manually using YaST.
After successful registration you will be given the option to activate Modules as additional package repositories. For example the Toolchain Module provides the supported versions of the GNU Compiler Collection for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM 12 SP3.
Clickto exit the setup wizard and continue the system start-up.
3.2 The Desktop Environment
When the system finished booting, you will see the following login screen:
Figure 4 XDM Login Screen
Type in the user name and password you chose during the initial configuration. The default IceWM desktop starts. By using the menu, you can start an XTerm terminal:
Figure 5 IceWM desktop
4.0 General System Usage
After the initial configuration procedure and the first boot of the system, you can now use various components of the system.
The Raspberry Pi has a Bluetooth* controller on-board that can be used for various purposes, like wireless keyboards, mice or audio devices.
To enable the Bluetooth* controller for use with bluetoothctl and related applications, run:
hciattach /dev/ttyAMA0 bcm43xx 921600 bcm43xx_init Flash firmware /lib/firmware/BCM43430A1.hcd Set Controller UART speed to 921600 bit/s Device setup complete
You can then use hciconfig hci0 up to bring the device up and use hcitool scan to scan the environment for discoverable devices.
For compiling software, only the versions of the GNU Compiler Collection provided by the Toolchain Module, which can be selected after registration, are supported. To use the supported version, gcc-7 needs to be invoked instead of gcc.
5.0 Initial System Configuration
In this section it is explained how to perform the initial system configuration for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM 12 SP3 on the Raspberry Pi.
5.1 Changing the Host Name
Follow these steps to change the default host name:
Open the YaST network module either by running yast2 lan or clicking the network icon in the YaST control center.
Selectin the top tab bar.
Type the new host name into thefield.
Clickto save the change. After YaST exited, you need to log out and in again.
5.2 Setting up Networking
The default configuration has DHCP enabled on the Ethernet port. If that suits your network environment, you can skip this section. If you require the use of a static IP address, use YaST:
Open the YaST network module either by running yast2 lan or clicking the network icon in the YaST control center.
In YaST, you will see the network interface being selected. Select the built-in Ethernet and chooseto open the address configuration.
Selectand type in the desired values for and . Click .
With a static network configuration, you will also need to specify a DNS server (if applicable) and a gateway. For the gateway, selectin the tab bar and enter the IPs of the gateways into the specific fields.
The DNS server is set in thetab. After choosing that tab, enter the IPs of the name servers into the respective fields.
Similarly to the procedure described above, YaST also lets you configure the built-in Wi-Fi network adapter.
For detailed information about the network configuration in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, consult the respective sections of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Deployment Guide and the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
5.3 Registration Process
It is very important to register your SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM subscription to ensure full functionality of your Raspberry Pi system. The SD card image provided by SUSE contains a minimal set of packages that are intended for the initial boot process and to get your Raspberry Pi onto the network.
When you have registered your SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM subscription, you can download other packages you may need, such as compilers. The SUSE Linux Enterprise Server version that runs on your Raspberry Pi is the same version that runs on x86, Power, IBM Z, or on other Arm-based systems.
IMPORTANT: Setting the Clock
Because the Raspberry Pi does not have a persistent Real Time Clock, make sure that the clock is set to the current date and time before attempting to use Zypper or YaST to install additional packages.
You can register your system either during first boot or via the YaST Product Registration module.
NOTE: Evaluation Code
Sixty day evaluation subscriptions may be requested at the following page: https://www.suse.com/products/arm/raspberry-pi/
After you obtained a registration code from a subscription card, you need to activate your subscription on the SUSE Customer Center at:
To register your subscription, perform the following steps:
Log in to the SUSE Customer Center using a browser on another machine. Create an account if required:
Click the dialog field:
Enter the registration code and accept the terms and conditions:
Confirm the subscription activation and the organization assignment. Click:
Your subscription is now active and ready to be used:
6.0 Product Documentation
This introduction only covered the most basic tasks.
6.1 Product Documentation
You can find the complete documentation for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3 at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/.
NOTE: Applicability of Product Documentation
Not all content in the product documentation applies to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for ARM on the Raspberry Pi, because the Raspberry Pi differs largely from other hardware platforms.
6.2 SUSE Forums
A valid and activated subscription entitles you to receive bug and security fixes, feature updates, and technical assistance from SUSE's support organization. Learn more at https://www.suse.com/support/. Via the SUSE Customer Center at https://scc.suse.com/login you can open an incident.
In addition, SUSE has provided conversation forums where you can get answers to questions. Go to https://forums.suse.com/. Under the main forum category SUSE Linux Enterprise Server select the sub-forum SLES for Raspberry Pi.
IMPORTANT: Forums Are No Official Support Channel
The SUSE Forum is no official support channel from SUSE. The individual articles or statements were contributed voluntarily by community members and users of the respective products. SUSE cannot verify either that the actions described in the articles do what they claim to do or that they do not have unintended consequences. Therefore, neither SUSE LLC, its affiliates, nor the authors may be held liable for possible errors or the consequences thereof.
Visit https://www.suse.com/support/ for more information about official support options.
7.0 Legal Notice
Copyright ©2006– 2018 SUSE LLC and contributors. All rights reserved.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or (at your option) version 1.3; with the Invariant
Section being this copyright notice and license. A copy of the
license version 1.2 is included in the section entitled
Free Documentation License.
SUSE, the SUSE logo and YaST are registered trademarks of SUSE LLC in the United States and other countries. For SUSE trademarks, see http://www.suse.com/company/legal/. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Other names or trademarks mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail. However, this does not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither SUSE LLC, its affiliates, the authors, nor the translators shall be held liable for possible errors or the consequences thereof.
8.0 GNU Free Documentation License
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This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
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7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts". line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.