SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications 12

The Guide

Publication date: May 27, 2015

Copyright © 2015 SUSE LLC and contributors. All rights reserved.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or (at your option) version 1.3; with the Invariant Section being this copyright notice and license. A copy of the license version 1.2 is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.

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All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail. However, this does not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither SUSE LLC, the authors, nor the translators shall be held liable for possible errors or the consequences thereof.

About This Guide

SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is the reference platform for SAP's software development. It is optimized in various ways for SAP applications. This guide provides detailed information about installing and customizing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server High Availability Extension is also part of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

1 Overview

The SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Guide is divided into the following chapters:

What is SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications?

Here you will find an overview of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

Default Installation Options

This chapter explains in detail the available installation scenarios for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

Remote Installation from a Network Server

This chapter provides details about remote installation scenarios for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Components

In this chapter the components are listed and additionally you will find hints about configuring SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

2 Additional Documentation and Resources

Chapters in this manual contain links to additional documentation resources that are either available on the system or on the Internet.

For an overview of the documentation available for your product and the latest documentation updates, refer to http://www.suse.com/documentation.

3 Feedback

Several feedback channels are available:

Bugs and Enhancement Requests

For services and support options available for your product, refer to http://www.suse.com/support/.

To report bugs for a product component, go to http://www.suse.com/mysupport, log in, and select Submit New SR.

User Comments

We want to hear your comments about and suggestions for this manual and the other documentation included with this product. Use the User Comments feature at the bottom of each page in the online documentation or go to http://www.suse.com/doc/feedback.html and enter your comments there.

Mail

For feedback on the documentation of this product, you can also send a mail to doc-team@suse.de. Make sure to include the document title, the product version and the publication date of the documentation. To report errors or suggest enhancements, provide a concise description of the problem and refer to the respective section number and page (or URL).

4 Documentation Conventions

The following typographical conventions are used in this manual:

  • /etc/passwd: directory names and filenames

  • placeholder: replace placeholder with the actual value

  • PATH: the environment variable PATH

  • ls, --help: commands, options, and parameters

  • user: users or groups

  • Alt, AltF1: a key to press or a key combination; keys are shown in uppercase as on a keyboard

  • File, File › Save As: menu items, buttons

  • amd64, em64t, ipf This paragraph is only relevant for the architectures amd64, em64t, and ipf. The arrows mark the beginning and the end of the text block.

    ipseries, System z This paragraph is only relevant for the architectures System z and ipseries. The arrows mark the beginning and the end of the text block.

  • Dancing Penguins (Chapter Penguins, ↑Another Manual): This is a reference to a chapter in another manual.

1 What is SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications?

SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is a bundle of software and services that addresses the specific needs of SAP users. It is the only operating system that is optimized for all SAP software solutions.

1.1 Overview

Target use cases include:

  • Unix to Linux Migrations and Replatforming

  • SAP Appliances

  • SAP Cloud Deployments

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications consists of software components (see Section 1.2, “Software Components”) and service offerings (see Section 1.3, “Services for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications”).

1.2 Software Components

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

The current release is based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is the most interoperable platform for mission-critical computing, both physical and virtual.

Installation Wizard

The Installation Wizard offers a guided installation path for both the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server operating system and the SAP application.

Additionally, the workflow can be extended by 3rd party vendors or customers with the help of the Supplement Media (see Section 5.4, “Supplement Media”).

SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension

This component consists of:

  • Flexible, policy-driven clustering

  • Cluster-aware file system and volume management

  • Continuous data replication

  • Set-up and installation

  • Management and administration tools

  • Resource agents, also for SAP

  • Virtualization aware

For more information about SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension, see the High Availability Guide (http://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/) and the White Papers and Best Practice Guides in the Resource Library (http://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/resource-library/).

Page-Cache Limit

Limit the kernel file system cache size to influence swapping behavior. With this feature you can gain better performance by allocating memory to an application. For more information, see Section 5.2.1, “Kernel: Page-Cache Limit”.

ClamSAP

ClamSAP is an antivirus toolkit integration. For more information, see Section 5.5, “ClamSAP”.

1.3 Services for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications

Extended Service Pack Overlap Support

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications includes Extended Service Pack Overlap Support. This extends the overlapping support period for two service packs by one year. This allows to perform a service pack migration within a 18 months time period as opposed to 6 months. With Extended Service Pack Overlap Support migrations can be scheduled more easily and testing before migration can be performed under lesser time constraints, while still remaining under full support and receiving all relevant maintenance updates. Extended Service Pack Overlap Support is a unique offering being part of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

Additional Update Channel
  • Allows SAP-specific patches

  • Updates for SAP-specific packages

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Priority Support for SAP Applications

Subscriptions for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Priority Support for SAP Applications. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Priority Support for SAP Applications offers technical support for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications directly from SAP. The joint support infrastructure, used by support engineers from SUSE Technical Support and SAP, is based upon SAP Solution Manager and offers a seamless communication with both SAP and SUSE in a 1 Face to the Customer manner, thus reducing complexity and lowering the total cost of ownership.

2 Default Installation Options

After planning the installation with downloading the software and checking the minimal hardware requirements, there are three default installation options:

2.1 Planning the Installation

Plan the installation with downloading the software and checking the minimal hardware requirements.

2.1.1 Download and Installation Preparations

  1. Download the DVD ISO image of SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications 12 (electronic media kit) from https://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/.

  2. Burn the image onto a physical DVD and ensure that it is bootable. Alternatively, you might use a virtual CD-ROM device for installation into a virtual machine.

2.1.2 Hardware Requirements

CPU

64bit (x86_64).

Hard Disk

For the Installation with Wizard, at least 35 GB hard disk space for the system volume plus space for the swap partition and 200 GB for the data partition are required. For more information, see Section 3.1, “Stage 1: Partitioning for the Operating System”.

2.2 Booting the Installation Medium

Different options are available to install SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications 12. Select the preferred installation option from the DVD boot menu:

DVD Boot Menu
Figure 2.1: DVD Boot Menu
Boot from Hard Disk

Booting the system installed on the local hard disk.

SLES for SAP Applications — Installation (see Section 2.3, “SLES for SAP Applications — Installation)

A standard SLES installation prepared for installing SAP applications later. You can install SAP applications with 3rd party installation routines.

This option is suitable for experienced administrators who want to install SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications according to their own plan. The default package selection is identical to a standard SLES installations.

SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with Wizard (see Section 2.4, “SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with Wizard)

This is a guided installation of the operating system and a SAP application. After the installation of the operating system the SAP Installation Wizard will start for installation of a validated SAP solution.

SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with External Profile (see Section 2.5, “SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with External Profile)

This installation is driven by a user-provided AutoYaST profile. There are no SUSE-provided SAP optimizations.

This scenario is suitable for experienced users who are familiar with AutoYaST and want to deploy their own AutoYaST profiles to install SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

Upgrade

Upgrading the system. For more information, see the Deployment Guide, Chapter 7.4, Upgrading to SUSE Linux Enterprise 12; find the Deployment Guide at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/.

Rescue System

Starting a minimal Linux system without a graphical user interface. For more information, see the Administration Guide, Chapter 36, Common Problems and Their Solutions; find the Administration Guide at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/.

Memory Test

Testing the system RAM using repeated read and write cycles. For more information, see the Administration Guide Chapter 36, Common Problems and Their Solutions.

2.3 SLES for SAP Applications — Installation

This is a standard manual SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation; for details about such a SLES installation, see the SLES Deployment Guide, Chapter 6, Installation with YaST.

License Confirmation
Figure 2.2: License Confirmation

On the initial dialog confirm the license (see Figure 2.2, “License Confirmation”).

Initial Registration Dialog
Figure 2.3: Initial Registration Dialog

On the Registration dialog check your Network Configuration with the upper right button. The Network Settings will automatically pop up, if the automatic configuration via DHCP fails. Once the network configuration is checked, enter your registration data and confirm the dialog with Next.

Note
Note: Additional Packages Pre-Selected

If you install with registration, the SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension repository by default will be activated and some few SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension packages will get installed. This will not happen, if you will register the product after the installation.

You will be prompted for all common installation settings, like partitioning of storage devices, network, or software packages.

2.4 SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with Wizard

This is a guided installation of the operating system with optimized settings for SAP applications.

During this installation scenario, the following installation and configuration steps will take place. Interactive settings are required or possible. At the end of the SUSE Linux installation, you will be prompted to insert your SAP product media.

2.4.1 Data Required for Installing the System (with Wizard)

The following data is required for the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server part of the installation (required per physical server):

Hostname

Domain

IP address

Subnet mask

Domain searchlist (DNS)

IP for nameserver

IP for gateway

Master password for the system installation (root password)

Some more specific parameters are required depending on the SAP application you want to install, for example SAP System ID or System T-Shirt Sizing.

2.4.2 Selecting SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with Wizard from the DVD Boot Menu

From the DVD boot menu (see Figure 2.1, “DVD Boot Menu”), select SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with Wizard. The installation process loads and configures a SUSE Linux system with all requirements for a SAP installation. To view the boot messages and copyright notices during this process, press Esc. On completion of this process, the YaST installation program starts and displays the graphical installer, which will run mostly automatically.

On the initial dialog confirm the license (see Figure 2.2, “License Confirmation”).

2.4.3 Preparing System for Automated Installation

After analyzing your computer, YaST allows you to specify options for a customized installation.

2.4.3.1 Password for the System Administrator root

First, YaST prompts you to enter the system administrator password; see Figure 2.4, “System Administrator Password”. This is the root password for the system.

System Administrator Password
Figure 2.4: System Administrator Password

root is the name of the superuser, or the administrator of the system. Unlike regular users (who may or may not have permission to access certain areas or execute certain commands on the system), root has unlimited access to change the system configuration, install programs, and set up new hardware. The root account should only be used for system administration, maintenance, and repair. Logging in as root for daily work is rather risky: a single mistake could lead to irretrievable loss of system files.

For verification purposes, the password for root must be entered twice. Do not forget the root password. Once entered, this password cannot be retrieved.

The root password can be changed any time later in the installed system. To do so, run YaST and start Security and Users › User and Group Management.

Warning
Warning: The root User

The root user has all the permissions needed to make changes to the system. To carry out such tasks, the root password is required. You cannot carry out any administrative tasks without this password.

2.4.3.2 System Volume Configuration

The next YaST pop-up dialog lets you fine-tune the volume configuration. Here you configure the volume for the system and swap space. Suitable values depending on your available hardware are pre-selected. This is for the SUSE Linux operating system only; the data volume comes later, after selecting the SAP Application.

System Volume Configuration
Figure 2.5: System Volume Configuration

If there is just one hard disk, keep it as the system volume device and set the size of the system volume (and the swap space) in GB in the lower field and confirm it; see Figure 2.5, “System Volume Configuration”.

Tip
Tip: Size of the System Volume

Normally, at least 35 GB is required for the system volume. The swap space depends on the available main memory (RAM). For more information, see the SAP Note 1984787: https://service.sap.com/sap/support/notes/1984787.

If there is more than one hard disk, select the right one as the system volume device and set the size of the system volume (and the swap space) in GB in the lower fields and confirm it. For more information about partitioning, see Chapter 3, Background Information on Partitioning.

Warning
Warning: Deleting Data

If you confirm the storage volume configuration, all existing data on the hard disk will be deleted. If you do not want this to happen, turn off the system.

2.4.3.3 Hostname, Domain Name, and IP Address

The next dialog starts with the network configuration; see Figure 2.6, “Hostname, Domain Name, and IP Address”.

Hostname, Domain Name, and IP Address
Figure 2.6: Hostname, Domain Name, and IP Address
Tip
Tip: Querying DHCP Server

The installation wizard will query a locally running DHCP server to get interesting network data such as names and IP adresses for the local host, DNS server, NTP server, etc. This ensures that the entry fields of the next dialogs will be prefilled with these data.

The Hostname is the computer’s name in the network. The Domain Name is the name of the network. A hostname and domain are proposed by default. If your system is part of a network, the hostname has to be unique in this network, whereas the domain name has to be common to all hosts on the network.

Also enter the IP Address and Netmask for this host. The IP address must be unique and the netmask has to be common to all hosts on the network.

2.4.3.4 Domain Name Service (DNS) and Time Server (NTP)

The next dialog continues with the network configuration; see Figure 2.7, “Domain Name Service (DNS) and Time Server (NTP)”.

Domain Name Service (DNS) and Time Server (NTP)
Figure 2.7: Domain Name Service (DNS) and Time Server (NTP)

For Domain Name Service (DNS) configuration, enter the Domain Searchlist and the IP Address of DNS Server plus the IP address of the Default Gateway of your network.

Also enter the address of the NTP Server to synchronize automatically via Network Time Protocol (NTP).

2.4.3.5 Registration

To get technical support and product updates, you need to register and activate your product with the Novell Customer Center; see Figure 2.8, “Registration”. This dialog provides assistance for doing so. For information about SUSE Customer Center, see https://scc.suse.com.

Registration
Figure 2.8: Registration

Enter your E-Mail Address and Registration Code for the product. If you provide the registration code now, operating system updates will be installed automatically during the installation of the system.

Note
Note: Additional Packages Pre-Selected

If you install with registration, the SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension repository by default will be activated and some few SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension packages will get installed. This will not happen, if you will register the product after the installation.

After confirmation, the system will be configured with the supplied settings. Then YaST performs the partitioning and the software installation. Packages are installed one by one, so you can see the progress.

No user action is required at this stage.

Warning
Warning: Firewall Disabled

This wizard-based installation scenario disables the firewall (SuSEfirewall2) completely.

If needed, you can activate the firewall after the installation. If you activate the firewall after the installation, you must open all required ports manually. For more information about required ports, see Section 5.2.2, “Ports Configuration”.

2.4.4 SAP Product Installation

After an automatic reboot (Boot from Harddisk › Booting SLE-12-SAP) and applying previously supplied configuration settings, you are prompted to continue with the SAP Product Installation using the SAP Installation Wizard. The SAP Installation Wizard will install the SAP application from the SAP media kits you received from SAP.

Tip
Tip: SAP Product Installation Default Settings

The SAP Product Installation default settings are specified and documented in /etc/sysconfig/sap-installation-wizard. You can change them according to your needs.

Procedure 2.1: SAP Product Installation
  1. Select Create SAP file systems and start SAP product installation and confirm the pop-up (see Figure 2.9, “SAP Product Installation”) if you want to continue with the installation right away.

    Otherwise, it is possible to just prepare the SAP product installation with Only create SAP Business One file systems, do not install SAP products now, or completely interrupt the installation process at this point with Finish wizard and proceed to OS login and resume it after a system restart.

    SAP Product Installation
    Figure 2.9: SAP Product Installation
    Tip
    Tip: Resuming SAP Installation after System Restart

    To resume the SAP installation with the wizard, start YaST and select the SAP Product Installer (Computer, then in the YaST Control Center click Miscellaneous › SAP Product Installer; see Figure 2.10, “YaST Control Center: SAP Product Installer”). The functionality is the same, but the layout of the dialogs is different; the left progress pane is only displayed when continuing with the installation without a restart.

    The following screen shots document the installation with the SAP Product Installer that runs after a restart of the system.

    YaST Control Center: SAP Product Installer
    Figure 2.10: YaST Control Center: SAP Product Installer
  2. In the next dialog provide the Location of the SAP Installation Master; see Figure 2.11, “SAP Installation Wizard: SAP Installation Master Location”. The location can either be a local source or a remotely provided installation source.

    Local Source
    • a directory (dir:// and /path/to/dir/)

    • a locally connected hard disk (device:// and devicename/path/to/dir/on/device)

    • a USB mass storage (usb:// and /path/to/dir/on/USB)

    • a CD-ROM (cdrom://)

    A Remotely Provided Installation Source
    • NFS (nfs:// and server_name//path/to/dir/on/server)

    • SMB (smb:// and [username:password@]server_name//path/to/dir/on/server[?workgroup=workgroup_name])

    —select the corresponding option from the pull-down list on the left.

    Tip
    Tip: Remote Location Specification

    If you want to install from an NFS source, you must enter the name of the server and the complete path to the media data. For more information about setting up a remote installation server, see Section 4.2, “Copying SAP Media Sets from a Remote Server with the Installation Wizard”.

    SAP Installation Wizard: SAP Installation Master Location
    Figure 2.11: SAP Installation Wizard: SAP Installation Master Location
  3. Only in the case of a NetWeaver installation, in the next dialog you must select the Installation Mode such as SAP Standard System, SAP Standalone Engines, etc. and the Database such as IBM DB2, MaxDB, etc. you want to deploy. In the case of a B1 or HANA installation, such a selection does not exist. See Figure 2.12, “SAP Installation Wizard: Installation Mode and Database”. Click Help for information.

    SAP Installation Wizard: Installation Mode and Database
    Figure 2.12: SAP Installation Wizard: Installation Mode and Database

    Enable Preparation for autoinstallation, if you only want to enter the installation parameters, but not perform the actual installation now. In this case, the installer will copy the product images to /data/SAP_CDs and prepare an installation environment for every product as follows:

    /data/SAP_INST/0/Instmaster
    /data/SAP_INST/1/Instmaster
    /data/SAP_INST/2/Instmaster
    ...

    If you later actually want to run the auto installation, set SAP_AUTO_INSTALL="yes" in /etc/sysconfig/sap-installation-wizard. If you then click the SAP Product Installer in the YaST Control Center to run the auto installation, all settings will be displayed and offered for optional fine-tuning (NetWeaver) or the parameters are written to the AutoYaST files in the /data/SAP_INST/number directories, where you can modify them according to your needs (HANA/B1).

  4. In case of a NetWeaver installation you now select a SAP Product. The offerings of available products depend on the media set and installation master you received from SAP; for example, see Figure 2.13, “SAP Installation Wizard: SAP Products”.

    SAP Installation Wizard: SAP Products
    Figure 2.13: SAP Installation Wizard: SAP Products
  5. For example, select SAP NetWeaver 7.4 and click Next. Now the relevant part of the SAP media will be copied to the hard drive of the machine for the following SAP installation (after copying, see the contents of /data/SAP_CDs; the layout is explained later in this chapter). This is repeated for all necessary SAP media, with some additional simple questions.

  6. You are asked to provide the Location of the SAP Medium and if additional media are needed, you can also add them afterwards; see Figure 2.14, “SAP Installation Wizard: Additional SAP Media” (here you see the list of already copied or linked SAP media). Click Help for information.

    SAP Installation Wizard: Additional SAP Media
    Figure 2.14: SAP Installation Wizard: Additional SAP Media
  7. Then you can optionally copy a Supplement or 3rd-Party Medium. For more information about a Supplement Media, see Section 5.4, “Supplement Media”.

  8. At this point, all data (product images) required for the SAP installation is selected and copied to /data/SAP_CDs, one directory per medium, e.g.:

    /data/SAP_CDs:
    742-KERNEL-SAP-Kernel-742
    742-UKERNEL-SAP-Unicode-Kernel-742
    RDBMS-MAX-DB-LINUX_X86_64
    SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-1-3
    SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-2-3
    SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-3-3

    /data/SAP_CDs is the default directory as specified in the /etc/sysconfig/sap-installation-wizard configuration file.

  9. In the following configuration dialogs, enter the details for the SAP installation.

    First, specify the System T-Shirt-Sizing.

    SAP System Parameters: T-Shirt-Sizing
    Figure 2.15: SAP System Parameters: T-Shirt-Sizing
  10. In Figure 2.16, “SAP Virtual Network Settings”, then enable and enter the virtual network settings, if needed. For details, see the online help on the left.

    SAP Virtual Network Settings
    Figure 2.16: SAP Virtual Network Settings
  11. Now all installation data (media and settings) is available to the wizard, and the final deployment of the SAP system can take place with the SAP installer (SAPinst).

    SAP Installer (SAPinst): Defining Parameters
    Figure 2.17: SAP Installer (SAPinst): Defining Parameters

    The SAP installer displays a visualization of the installation steps it performs; see Figure 2.18, “SAP Installer (SAPinst)”.

    SAP Installer (SAPinst)
    Figure 2.18: SAP Installer (SAPinst)
Note
Note: Installation Progress

Depending on your machine, it takes a while until the SAPinst tool shows up.

After the SAP installer has finished, you will see a short summary of the installation data.

2.5 SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with External Profile

This installation is driven by a user-provided AutoYaST profile and there is no wizard support. This scenario is suitable for experienced users who are familiar with AutoYaST and want to deploy their own AutoYaST profiles to install SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications. For more information about AutoYaST profiles, see the SLES AutoYaST Guide (the AutoYaST Guide comes with the product or is available from http://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

In order to use a user-provided AutoYaST profile, select Install SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with External Profile from the DVD Boot Menu. Within the boot options, change the autoyast=usb:/// parameter to the location of a user-provided AutoYaST profile, or enter the location when YaST asks for it in the next dialog.

YaST Asking for System Profile Location
Figure 2.19: YaST Asking for System Profile Location
Note
Note: Loading External Profile via HTTP

It is possible to load the external profile from the network via HTTP. In this case, it is also needed to change the netsetup boot parameter from 0 (default) to 1:

... autoyast=http://192.168.3.100/autoinst.xml netsetup=1 ...

You can also reference the SAP specific pattern, the HA component and SAP-specific IBM Java in your AutoYaST profile and then install it during this installation scenario. As everything else, these components are not preselected and you must include this yourself in your autoyast.xml file.

2.5.1 About AutoYaST

AutoYaST is a system for installing one or more SUSE Linux systems automatically and without user intervention. AutoYaST installations are performed using an AutoYaST profile with installation and configuration data. That profile can be created using the AutoYaST configuration interface and can be provided to YaST during installation in different ways.

For more information about AutoYaST, see the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 AutoYaST Guide (the AutoYaST Guide comes with the product or is available from http://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

2.5.2 Partitioning with AutoYaST

For standard systems find pre-defined partitioning settings in /usr/share/YaST2/include/sap-installation-wizard/. These could serve as examples if you want to create your custom partitioning scripts.

For background information on partitioning, see Chapter 3, Background Information on Partitioning.

3 Background Information on Partitioning

During installation partitioning will be done in two steps. The first step happens while installing the operating system (stage 1, see Section 2.4.3, “Preparing System for Automated Installation”), and the second step while installing your SAP product (stage 2, see Section 2.4.4, “SAP Product Installation”).

3.1 Stage 1: Partitioning for the Operating System

During stage 1 of the installation (see Section 2.4.3, “Preparing System for Automated Installation”), partitions for the operating system will be created.

A logical volume group (LVG) named system will be created. This LVG contains two logical volumes (LVs) named root_lv and swap_lv. The size of swap_lv will be calculated according to the SAP Note 1984787 (https://service.sap.com/sap/support/notes/1984787). For root_lv, 70 GB will be assumed at first, and the sum of root_lv and swap_lv will be displayed as Set the system volume size in GB.

You can change both, the size of the system volume (Set the system volume size in GB) and the size of the swap partition (Set the SWAP size in GB). When doing this, mind some caveats:

  • The size of the system volume could not exceed the physical size of the device minus 1 GB; 1 GB will be reserved for boot or for UEFI.

  • Better do not change the size of the swap partition. Only in the case of HANA, set 2 GB here.

  • root_lv should not be smaller than 5 GB.

Note
Note: Error Messages

Only if the size of the system volume (plus 1 GB) exceeds the physical size of the device or if the swap partition exceeds the size of the system volume, error messages are issued.

3.2 Stage 2: Partitioning for the SAP System

After installing the operating system the partitioning for the SAP system will take place. This can be done during stage 2 of the installation phase or in the running system.

The partitioning for the SAP system is not controlled by autoinst.xml; this is used for the installation of the operating system. The autoinst functionality no longer exists in the running system. Instead the following files are controlling the partitioning for the SAP system:

In /etc/sap-installation-wizard.xml the <partitioning> tag defines for which SAP programs which files for controlling the partitioning are used. These files will be taken from /usr/share/YaST2/include/sap-installation-wizard/. If no partitioning is needed (for example, if the installation is based on HA or a distributed database is configured), set the <partitioning> tag to no, then base_partitioning.xml will be used.

The files for controlling the partitioning are basically AutoYaST control files that contain a partitioning section only. There are several extensions:

  • If the <partitioning_defined> tag is set to true, the partitioning will be performed without any user interaction. This, for example, is preconfigured in files for controlling the partitioning of known hardware such as Dell, Fujitsu, HP, or IBM Server systems. If the SAP Installation Wizard recognizes this hardware, the appropriated file will be selected. This applies for SAP BusinessOne HANA only!

  • For every partition you can specify the <size_min> tag. The size value can be given as a string in the format of RAM*N. This way you can specify, how large the partition should be minimally (x-times (N) the size of the available memory (RAM)).

If you need something different (e.g., for TREX), proceed as follows:

  1. In /usr/share/YaST2/include/sap-installation-wizard/ create a new file for controlling the partitioning (e.g., TREX_partitioning.xml). You can base the new file on base_partitioning.xml and change it according to your needs.

  2. In /etc/sap-installation-wizard.xml, at the TREX following tag insert:

    <partitioning>TREX_partitioning.xml</partitioning>
Warning
Warning: Do Not Edit base_partitioning.xml

Do Not Edit base_partitioning.xml directly. With the next update this file will be overridden.

For more information on partitioning with AutoYaST, see the Chapter 4.4 Partitioning of the AutoYaST Guide.

4 Remote Installation from a Network Server

For detailed information about installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server from a network server in general, see the Deployment Guide, Chapter 14, Remote Installation (the Deployment Guide comes with the product or is available from http://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

The following section provides a short description about installing from a network server.

4.1 Installing with Installation Media from the Network

  1. Copy the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications DVD content to a Web server (e.g., example.com) to the directory /srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo.

  2. Boot from DVD.

  3. Choose one of the boot menu options and edit the command line:

    1. remove the parameter instmode=cd from the command line

    2. change netsetup=0 to netsetup=1 and autoyast=file:/// to autoyast=http://example.com/sap_repo/, and

    3. add the parameter install=http://example.com/sap_repo.

    With netsetup=1 you will start the network.

This is all you need for a network installation. If you want to avoid using a DVD to bootstrap the system and boot from the network via PXE, read the AutoYaST Guide about setting up a PXE environment (the AutoYaST Guide comes with the product or is available from http://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

4.2 Copying SAP Media Sets from a Remote Server with the Installation Wizard

It is possible to copy the SAP media sets from a remote server (NFS, SMB, etc.). For example, if you want to put the SAP media sets on an NFS Server, proceed as follows:

  1. Create a directory /srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo on your installation server.

  2. Edit the /etc/exports file on the installation server by adding the following:

    /srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo *(ro,root_squash,sync)
  3. In /srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo create a directory for every SAP media you have, for example kernel, java, maxdb, etc., which will give you a hint about the contents.

  4. Copy the contents of all SAP media with cp -a to the corresponding directory.

    Tip
    Tip: Avoid Copying on a Windows Operating System

    Do not copy the media on a Windows operating system because it may break permission settings and capitalization of files and directories.

Now you can install from the NFS server; e.g., from example.com:/srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo.

For information about installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server from an NFS server, see the Deployment Guide, Chapter 14.2, Remote Installation and Section 14.2.2.

5 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Components

SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications consists of several components such as SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension, the Kernel page-cache limit feature, and an Installation Wizard, which are briefly explained in the following sections.

5.1 SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension and SAP HANA System Replication

The SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension is part of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications supports SAP HANA System Replication by including components of SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension.

SUSE has implemented the scale-up scenario with the SAPHana resource agent (RA), which performs the actual check of the SAP HANA database instances and is configured as a master/slave resource. In the scale-up scenario, the master assumes responsibility for the SAP HANA databases running in primary mode, and the slave is responsible for instances that are operated in synchronous (secondary) status.

To make configuring the cluster as simple as possible, SUSE also developed its SAPHanaTopology resource agent. This agent runs on all nodes of an SLE HAE cluster and gathers information about the status and configurations of SAP HANA system replications. It is designed as a normal (stateless) clone.

For more information, see

5.2 Configuring SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications

5.2.1 Kernel: Page-Cache Limit

Problem

The kernel swaps out rarely accessed memory pages in order to use freed memory pages as cache to speed up file system operations, for instance during backup operations.

Some SAP solutions use large amounts of memory for accelerated access to business data. Parts of this memory are seldom accessed. When a user request then needs to access paged out memory, the response time is poor. It is even worse, when an SAP solution running on Java incurs a Java garbage collection. The system starts heavy page-in (disc I/O) activity and has a poor response time for an extended period of time.

Solution

A kernel tune option has been introduced that allows the system administrator to limit the amount of page-cache that the kernel uses when there is competition between application memory and page-cache. This option tells the kernel that once the page-cache is filled to the configured limit, application memory is more important and should thus not be paged out. No pages will be paged out if the memory footprint of the workload plus the configured page-cache limit do not exceed the amount of physical RAM in the system.

These kernel options are available for configuration:

  • vm.pagecache_limit_mb (/proc/sys/vm/pagecache_limit_mb)

  • vm.pagecache_limit_ignore_dirty (/proc/sys/vm/pagecache_limit_ignore_dirty)

For permanent use, set them in /etc/sysctl.conf, e.g.

vm.pagecache_limit_mb = 1024
vm.pagecache_limit_ignore_dirty = 0

For background information, see SAP Note 1557506: Linux paging improvements (https://service.sap.com/sap/support/notes/1557506).

5.2.2 Ports Configuration

SAP applications require many open ports and port ranges in the firewall. The exact numbers depend on the selected instances, for example:

  • 3200-3399,

  • 3600,

  • 4700-4899,

  • 7200-7299,

  • 50000-59999.

It is also necessary to open 1128 and 1129 (TCP and UDP), and all the ports needed for the databases used (Oracle, DB2, MaxDB, Sybase).

Warning
Warning: Firewall Activation

The firewall is disabled if you use the wizard, and enabled if you use the normal setup.

5.2.3 Operating System Security Hardening

For hardening the underlying operating system, see the Operating System Security Hardening Guide for SAP HANA:

5.2.4 Important Log Files

The most important files for this product are:

  • Auto-installation related log files are in /var/adm/autoinstall/.

  • The installation wizard is a YaST module. Thus you will find wizard related log entries in /var/log/YaST/y2log.

  • We use a library for all SAP knowledge. Thus you will find related log entries in /var/log/SAPmedia.log.

5.3 The Installation Wizard

The Installation Wizard offers a guided installation path for both the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server operating system and the SAP applications.

Additionally, it includes an installation framework for 3rd party extensions.

The Installation Wizard consists of four parts:

  1. Installation of the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server).

  2. SAP Installation Wizard Part 1: Copying all required SAP media to the local disk or use a shared storage medium.

  3. SAP Installation Wizard Part 2: Collecting all parameters for the actual installation by querying the user interactively.

  4. SAP Installation Wizard Part 3: Running the SAP Installer.

It is possible to run most of these parts separately. This way, very flexible installation scenarios are possible. Here are some examples:

  • Just prepare a machine with the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server) and run the SAP Wizard later.

  • Just prepare a machine with the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server), copy the SAP media, and collect the SAP installation parameters.

You can copy such an installation to other machines, maybe adjusting just a few SAP installation parameters. Then finally run the SAP Installer.

5.4 Supplement Media

The basic idea of the Supplement Media is to enable partners or customers to add their own tasks or workflows to the Installation Wizard.

It is done by adding a small XML file, which will be part of an AutoYaST XML file. This file must be called product.xml; then it will be included in the workflow.

This can be used for various types of additions, such as adding your own RPMs, running your own scripts, setting up a cluster file system or creating your own dialogs and scripts.

5.4.1 product.xml

The product.xml file looks like a normal AutoYaST XML file, but with some restrictions.

The restrictions relate to the fact that only the parts for the second stage of the installation can be run, because the first stage was executed before.

Both XML files (autoyast.xml and product.xml) will be merged after the media is read and a new AutoYaST XML file is generated on the fly for the additional workflow.

The following areas or sections will be merged:

<general>
  <ask-list>         1
  ...
<software>           2
  <post-packages>
  ...
<scripts>
  <chroot-scripts>   3
  <post-scripts>     4
  <init-scripts>     5
  ...

1

see Section 5.4.2, “Own AutoYaST Ask Dialogs”

2

see Section 5.4.3, “Install Additional Packages”

3

after the package installation, before the first boot

4

during the first boot of the installed system, no services running

5

during the first boot of the installed system, all services up and running

All other sections will be replaced.

For the details of other customization options, see the SLES AutoYaST Guide, Chapter 4.16. Custom User Scripts.

5.4.2 Own AutoYaST Ask Dialogs

For a general overview and details of the Ask feature of AutoYaST, see Chapter 4.19. Ask the User for Values During Installation of the SLES AutoYaST Guide (the AutoYaST Guide comes with the product or is available from http://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

For the supplement media you can only use dialogs within the cont stage (<stage>cont</stage>), which means they are executed after the first reboot.

Your file with the dialogs will be merged with the base AutoYaST XML file.

As a best practice, your dialog should have a dialog number and an element number, best with steps of 10. This helps to include later additions and also could be used as targets for jumping over a dialog or element dependent on decisions. We also use this in our base dialogs and if you provide the right dialog number and element number, you can place your dialog between our base dialogs.

You can store the answer to a question in a file, to use it in one of your scripts later. Be aware that you must use the prefix /tmp/ay for this, because the Installation Wizard will copy such files from the /tmp directory to the directory where your media data also will be copied. This is done because the next supplement media could have the same dialogs or same answer file names and would overwrite the values saved here.

Here is an example with several options:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE profile>
<profile xmlns="http://www.suse.com/1.0/yast2ns"
         xmlns:config="http://www.suse.com/1.0/configns">
<general>
  <ask-list config:type="list">
      <ask>
          <stage>cont</stage>
          <dialog config:type="integer">20</dialog>
          <element config:type="integer">10</element>
          <question>What is your name?</question>
          <default>Enter your name here</default>
          <help>Please enter your full name within the field</help>
          <file>/tmp/ay_q_my_name</file>
          <script>
             <filename>my_name.sh</filename>
             <rerun_on_error config:type="boolean">true</rerun_on_error>
             <environment config:type="boolean">true</environment>
             <source><![CDATA[
function check_name() {
           local name=$1
           LC_ALL=POSIX
           [ -z "$name" ] && echo "You need to provide a name." && return 1
           return 0
}
check_name "$VAL"
]]>
             </source>
             <debug config:type="boolean">false</debug>
             <feedback config:type="boolean">true</feedback>
          </script>
      </ask>
  </ask-list>
</general>
</profile>

5.4.3 Install Additional Packages

You can also install RPM packages within the product.xml file. To do this, you can use the <post-packages> element for installation in stage 2.

For more information, see the SLES AutoYaST Guide, Chapter 4.6.5. Installing Packages in Stage 2. An example looks as follows:

...
<software>
 <post-packages config:type="list">
  <package>yast2-cim</package>
 </post-packages>
</software>
...

5.4.4 Example Directory for the Supplement Media

# ls
/
|--product.xml

5.5 ClamSAP

ClamSAP is an antivirus toolkit integration with the SAP Virus Scan Interface that improves cross-platform threat detection.

ClamSAP is a ‘C’ shared library to link between ClamAV and the virus scan interface of SAP (NW-VSI). A SAP application can use the ClamAV engine to scan for malicious uploads in HTTP uploads for example. If you want to use Virus Scan within SAP applications, you can use Virus Scan Interface in SAP (transaction VSCAN). There is an open source adapter for the ClamAV engine on http://freshmeat.net/projects/clamsap/. The library allows integration of ClamAV into SAP and works also on Unix, where most other anitvirus products do not run.

ClamAV is an open source (GPL) antivirus engine designed for detecting Trojans, viruses, malware, and other malicious threats. It is the de facto standard for mail gateway scanning. It provides a high performance multi-threaded scanning daemon, command line utilities for on-demand file scanning, and an intelligent tool for automatic signature updates. For more information, see http://www.clamav.net.

A Documentation Updates

This section contains information about documentation content changes made to the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Guide.

This document was updated on the following dates:

A.1 May 29, 2015

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Section 1.2, “Software Components”

Add more information on SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension.

There are also White Papers about SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

Section 2.1, “Planning the Installation”

Provide ISO image download URL.

Section 2.2, “Booting the Installation Medium”

The package scope of the SLES for SAP Applications — Installation is identical to a default SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation.

Section 2.3, “SLES for SAP Applications — Installation

Add note about pre-selected packages in case of registration at this stage of the installation.

Section 2.4.3.5, “Registration”

Add note about pre-selected packages in case of registration at this stage of the installation.

Section 2.4.4, “SAP Product Installation”

Rewrite remote location specification.

Section 3.1, “Stage 1: Partitioning for the Operating System”

HANA requires 2 GB of swap.

Section 5.1, “SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension and SAP HANA System Replication”

Address SAP HANA System Replication (https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=929626).

Section 5.2.3, “Operating System Security Hardening”

New section (https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=929625).

A.2 April 29, 2015

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

General

Replace SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 references with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 everywhere, and adjust the text according to the new installation flow.

About This Guide

Update feedback information.

Section 2.5, “SLES for SAP Applications — Installation with External Profile

Add note about loading an external profile via HTTP (https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=925747).

A.3 October 28, 2013

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Chapter 2, Default Installation Options

Update Hardware Requirements, Hard Disk space, and adjust the following text accordingly.

Chapter 3, Background Information on Partitioning

New chapter.

Appendix A, Documentation Updates

New appendix.

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