SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications 12 SP3

Guide

Publication Date: September 07, 2017
About This Guide
Overview
Additional Documentation and Resources
Feedback
Documentation Conventions
1 What Is SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications?
1.1 Software Components
1.2 Software Repository Setup
1.3 Included Services
2 Planning the Installation
2.1 Hardware Requirements
2.2 Downloading the Installation Image
2.3 Installation Methods
2.4 Overview of the Installation Workflow
2.5 Required Data for Installing
2.6 Partitioning
3 Installing the Operating System
3.1 Using the Installation Workflow
3.2 Using SLES for SAP Media from the Network
3.3 Using an External AutoYaST Profile
3.4 Converting a SLES Installation to a SLES for SAP Installation
4 Installing SAP Applications
4.1 Products That Can Be Installed Using SAP Installation Wizard
4.2 First Steps
4.3 Using the SAP Installation Wizard
4.4 Continuing an Installation Using an Installation Profile
4.5 Partitioning for an SAP Application Without the SAP Installation Wizard
4.6 Automated Installation of SAP Applications with AutoYaST
5 Setting Up an Installation Server for SAP Media Sets
6 Setting Up an SAP HANA Cluster
6.1 Prerequisites
6.2 Setup
6.3 Using Hawk
7 Tuning
7.1 Kernel: Page-Cache Limit
7.2 Tuning Systems with saptune
7.3 Tuning Systems with the Basic Utility sapconf
8 Firewalling
8.1 Configuring SuSEFirewall2
8.2 Configuring HANA-Firewall
8.3 SAProuter Integration
9 Encrypting Directories Using cryptctl
9.1 Setting Up a cryptctl Server
9.2 Setting Up a cryptctl Client
9.3 Checking Partition Unlock Status Using Server-side Commands
9.4 Unlocking Encrypted Partitions Manually
9.5 Maintenance Downtime Procedure
9.6 For More Information
10 Protecting Against Malware With ClamSAP
10.1 Installing ClamSAP
10.2 Creating a Virus Scanner Group in SAP NetWeaver
10.3 Setting Up the ClamSAP Library in SAP NetWeaver
10.4 Engaging ClamSAP
10.5 For More Information
11 Connecting via RDP
12 Creating Operating System Images
12.1 Creating Images with KIWI
12.2 Cleaning Up an Instance Before Using It as a Master Image
13 Important Log Files
A Additional Software for SLES for SAP
A.1 SUSE Connect Program
A.2 SUSE Package Hub
B Partitioning for the SAP System Using AutoYaST
C Supplementary Media
C.1 product.xml
C.2 Own AutoYaST Ask Dialogs
C.3 Installing Additional Packages
C.4 Example Directory for Supplementary Media
D Documentation Updates
D.1 September 7, 2017—SLES for SAP 12 SP3 FCS
D.2 May 10, 2017—SLES for SAP 12 SP2 Documentation Update
D.3 December 07, 2016—SLES for SAP 12 SP2 Documentation Update
D.4 November 07, 2016—SLES for SAP 12 SP2 FCS
D.5 March 23, 2016
D.6 February 29, 2016
D.7 February 15, 2016
D.8 May 29, 2015
D.9 April 29, 2015
D.10 October 28, 2013

Copyright © 2017 SUSE LLC and contributors. All rights reserved.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or (at your option) version 1.3; with the Invariant Section being this copyright notice and license. A copy of the license version 1.2 is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.

For SUSE trademarks, see http://www.suse.com/company/legal/. All other third-party trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Trademark symbols (®, ™ etc.) denote trademarks of SUSE and its affiliates. Asterisks (*) denote third-party trademarks.

All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail. However, this does not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither SUSE LLC, the authors, nor the translators shall be held liable for possible errors or the consequences thereof.

About This Guide

SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is the reference platform for the software development of SAP. It is optimized in various ways for SAP applications. This guide provides detailed information about installing and customizing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension is also part of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

1 Overview

The SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Guide is divided into the following chapters:

What Is SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications?

An overview of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

Planning the Installation

Information on hardware requirements, the installation workflow, partitioning, and other installation planning aspects.

Installing the Operating System

Installing the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server operating system that forms the basis of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

Installing SAP Applications

Installing SAP applications on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications, either directly after the installation of the operating system or in a running system.

Setting Up an Installation Server for SAP Media Sets

Setting up a server for all Installation Media used within your organization.

Software Components

Description of tools to configure SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

2 Additional Documentation and Resources

Chapters in this manual contain links to additional documentation resources that are either available on the system or on the Internet.

3 Feedback

Several feedback channels are available:

Bugs and Enhancement Requests

For services and support options available for your product, refer to http://www.suse.com/support/.

To report bugs for a product component, go to https://scc.suse.com/support/requests, log in, and select Submit New SR.

User Comments

We want to hear your comments about and suggestions for this manual and the other documentation included with this product. Use the User Comments feature at the bottom of each page in the online documentation or go to http://www.suse.com/doc/feedback.html and enter your comments there.

Mail

For feedback on the documentation of this product, you can also send a mail to doc-team@suse.de. Make sure to include the document title, the product version and the publication date of the documentation. To report errors or suggest enhancements, provide a concise description of the problem and refer to the respective section number and page (or URL).

4 Documentation Conventions

The following typographical conventions are used in this manual:

  • /etc/passwd: directory names and file names

  • placeholder: replace placeholder with the actual value

  • PATH: the environment variable PATH

  • ls, --help: commands, options, and parameters

  • user: users or groups

  • Alt, AltF1: a key to press or a key combination; keys are shown in uppercase as on a keyboard

  • File, File › Save As: menu items, buttons

  • amd64, em64t, ipf This paragraph is only relevant for the architectures amd64, em64t, and ipf. The arrows mark the beginning and the end of the text block.

    System z, ipseries This paragraph is only relevant for the architectures z Systems and ipseries. The arrows mark the beginning and the end of the text block.

  • Dancing Penguins (Chapter Penguins, ↑Another Manual): This is a reference to a chapter in another manual.

1 What Is SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications?

Abstract

SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is a bundle of software and services that addresses the specific needs of SAP users. It is the only operating system that is optimized for all SAP software solutions.

Target use cases include:

  • Unix to Linux migrations and replatforming

  • SAP appliances

  • SAP cloud deployments

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications consists of software components and service offerings which are described in the following sections. The figure Offerings of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications shows an overview of which software components and services are also available with other products from SUSE (green) and which are exclusively available with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications (blue).

Offerings of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications
Figure 1.1: Offerings of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications

1.1 Software Components

As depicted in Figure 1.1, “Offerings of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications”, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server but contains several additional software components such as SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension, the kernel page-cache limit feature, and the installation workflow. These software components are briefly explained in the following sections.

1.1.1 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

The current release is based on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is the most interoperable platform for mission-critical computing, both physical and virtual.

1.1.2 SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension

This component consists of:

  • Flexible, policy-driven clustering

  • Cluster-aware file system and volume management

  • Continuous data replication

  • Setup and installation

  • Management and administration tools

  • Resource agents, also for SAP

  • Virtualization-aware

SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension provides two resource agents specifically for working with SAP applications:

  • SAPInstance which allows starting and stopping instances of SAP products.

  • SAPDatabase which allows starting and stopping all databases supported by SAP applications (SAP HANA, SAP MaxDB, SAP ASE, Oracle, Sybase, IBM DB2).

For more information about SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension, see the High Availability Guide (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/) and the White Papers and Best Practice Guides in the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Resource Library (https://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/resource-library/).

1.1.3 Simplified SAP HANA System Replication Setup

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications supports SAP HANA System Replication using components of SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension and two additional resource agents (RA). Additionally, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications ships with a YaST wizard that simplifies the cluster setup.

1.1.3.1 SAPHana Resource Agent

This resource agent from SUSE supports scale-up scenarios by checking the SAP HANA database instances for whether a takeover needs to happen. Unlike with the pure SAP solution, takeovers can be automated.

It is configured as a master/slave resource: The master assumes responsibility for the SAP HANA databases running in primary mode, whereas the slave is responsible for instances that are operated in synchronous (secondary) status. In case of a takeover, the secondary (slave resource instance) can automatically be promoted to become the new primary (master resource instance).

This resource agent supports system replication for the following in scale-up scenarios:

  • Performance-Optimized Scenario.  Two servers (A and B) in the same SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension cluster, one primary (A) and one secondary (B). The SAP HANA instance from the primary server (A) is replicated synchronously to the secondary server (B).

  • Cost-Optimized Scenario.  The basic setup of A and B is the same as in the Performance-Optimized Scenario. However, the secondary server (B) is also used for non-productive purposes, such as for an additional SAP HANA database for development or QA. The production database is only kept on permanent memory, such as a hard disk. If a takeover needs to occur, the non-productive server will be stopped before the takeover is processed. The system resources for the productive database are then increased as quickly as possible via an SAP hook call-out script.

  • Chain/Multi-Tier Scenario.  Three servers (A, B, and C), of which two are located in the same SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension cluster (A and B). The third server (C) is located externally. The SAP HANA system on the primary server (A) is replicated synchronously to the secondary server (B). The secondary server (B) is replicated asynchronously to the external server (C).

    If a takeover from A to B occurs, the connection between B and C remains untouched. However, B is not allowed to be the source for two servers (A and C), as this would be a star topology which is not supported with current SAP HANA versions (such as SPS11).

    Using SAP HANA commands, you can then manually decide what to do:

    • The connection between B and C can be broken, so that B can connect to A.

    • If replication to the external site (C) is more important than local system replication, the connection between B and C can be kept.

For all of the scenarios, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications supports both single-tenant and multi-tenant (MDC) SAP HANA databases. That is, you can use SAP HANA databases that serve multiple SAP applications.

For more information, also see the project home page https://github.com/fmherschel/SAPHanaSR/.

1.1.3.2 SAPHanaTopology Resource Agent

To make configuring the cluster as simple as possible, SUSE has developed the SAPHanaTopology resource agent. This agent runs on all nodes of a SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension cluster and gathers information about the status and configurations of SAP HANA system replications. It is designed as a normal (stateless) clone.

1.1.3.3 YaST Wizard to Set Up SAP HANA Clusters

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications now additionally ships a YaST wizard that manages the initial setup of such clusters according to best practices. The wizard is part of the package yast2-sap-ha and can be started using YaST, via HA Setup for SAP Products.

For more information, see Chapter 6, Setting Up an SAP HANA Cluster.

1.1.3.4 For More Information

For more information, see:

1.1.4 Installation Workflow

The installation workflow offers a guided installation path for both the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server operating system and the SAP application. For more information, see Section 2.4, “Overview of the Installation Workflow”.

Additionally, the installation workflow can be extended by third-party vendors or customers using Supplementary Media. For more information about creating Supplementary Media, see Appendix C, Supplementary Media.

1.1.5 Page-Cache Limit

You can limit the kernel file system cache size to influence swapping behavior. With this feature, you can often gain better performance by allocating memory to an application.

For more information, see Section 7.1, “Kernel: Page-Cache Limit”.

1.1.6 Malware Protection with ClamSAP

ClamSAP integrates the ClamAV anti-malware toolkit into SAP NetWeaver and SAP Mobile Platform applications to enable cross-platform threat detection. For example, you can use ClamSAP to allow an SAP application to scan for malicious uploads in HTTP uploads.

For more information, see Chapter 10, Protecting Against Malware With ClamSAP.

1.1.7 SAP HANA Security

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications contains additional features to help set up well-secured SAP HANA installations.

1.1.7.1 Firewall for SAP HANA

SAP HANA often requires more firewall zones than the standard installation of SuSEFirewall2 provides. For this reason, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications additionally provides the package HANA-Firewall which integrates with SuSEFirewall2. It contains preconfigured zone setups and rules to make securing SAP HANA as simple as possible.

For more information, see Section 8.2, “Configuring HANA-Firewall”.

1.1.7.2 Hardening Guide for SAP HANA

For information on hardening the underlying operating system, see the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications resource library: https://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/resource-library/. There, find the document OS Security Hardening for SAP HANA.

1.1.8 Simplified Operations Management

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications combines several features that enable simplified operations management.

1.1.8.1 System Tuning with saptune

The system tuning application saptune allows you to automatically and comprehensively tune your system as recommended by SAP for use with SAP S/4HANA, SAP NetWeaver, or SAP HANA/SAP BusinessOne. To do this, saptune activates tuned profiles. These allow tuning several kernel parameters, depending on the hardware components you are using, such as the amount of available RAM.

For more information, see Section 7.2, “Tuning Systems with saptune.

1.1.8.2 Storage Encryption for Hosted Applications with cryptctl

Today, databases and similar applications are often hosted on external servers that are serviced by third-party staff. Certain data center maintenance tasks require third-party staff to directly access affected systems. In such cases, privacy requirements necessitate disk encryption.

cryptctl allows encrypting sensitive directories using LUKS and offers the following additional features:

  • Encryption keys are located on a central server which can be located customer premises.

  • Encrypted partitions are automatically remounted after an unplanned reboot.

For more information, see Chapter 9, Encrypting Directories Using cryptctl.

1.1.8.3 Patterns Providing Dependencies of SAP Applications

To simplify working with software dependencies of SAP applications, SUSE has created patterns that combine relevant dependency RPM packages for specific applications:

  • SAP BusinessOne Server Base

  • SAP HANA Server Base

  • SAP NetWeaver Server Base

Important
Important: Packages May Be Missing from Patterns

The selection of packages of the software patterns are defined while a specific release (Service Pack or major version) of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications is developed. This package selection is stable over the lifetime of this particular release. When working with SAP applications that have been released more recently than your SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications version, dependencies can be missing from the patterns.

For definitive information about the dependencies of your SAP application, see the documentation provided to you by SAP.

1.1.8.4 ClusterTools2

ClusterTools2 provides tools that help set up and manage a Corosync/pacemaker cluster. Among them are wow which helps create highly available system resources, and ClusterService which allows managing a cluster.

Additionally, ClusterTools2 provides scripts that automate common cluster tasks:

  • Scripts that perform checks. For example, to find out whether a system is set up correctly for creating a pacemaker cluster.

  • Scripts that simplify configuration. For example, to create a Corosync configuration.

  • Scripts that monitor the system and scripts that show or collect system information. For example, to find known error patterns in log files.

For more information, see the man page of the respective tool, included with the package ClusterTools2. Also see the project home page at https://github.com/fmherschel/ClusterTools2.

1.2 Software Repository Setup

Software included with operating systems based on SUSE Linux Enterprise is delivered as RPM packages, a form of installation package that can have dependencies on other packages. On a server or an installation medium, these packages are stored in software repositories (sometimes also called channels).

By default, computers running SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications are set up to receive packages from multiple repositories. Of each of the standard repositories, there is a Pool variant that represents the state of the software when it was first shipped. There is also an Update variant that includes the newest maintenance updates for the software in the Pool variant.

If you registered your system during installation, your repository setup should include the following:

Table 1.1: Standard Repositories

Content

Base repository (Pool)

Update repository

Base packages of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

SLES12-SP3-Pool

SLES12-SP3-Updates

Packages specific to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications

SLE12-SP3-SAP-Pool

SLE-12-SP3-SAP-Updates

Packages specific to SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension

SLE-HA12-SP3-Pool

SLE-HA12-SP3-Updates

The tables in this section do not show Debuginfo and Source repositories which are also set up but disabled by default. The Debuginfo repositories contain packages that can be used for debugging regular packages. The Source repositories contain source code for packages.

Depending on your installation method, you may also see SLE-12-SP3-SAP-12.3-0 which is the installation medium. It contains packages from all of the base software repositories listed above.

Because there are own repositories for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications, SUSE can ship packages and patches that are specific to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

In addition to the standard repositories, you can enable the following SLE Modules and SLE Extensions either during the installation or from the running system using YaST or the command SUSEConnect.

Table 1.2: Module Repositories

Content

Base repository (Pool)

Update repository

Advanced Systems Management Module: CFEngine, Puppet and the Machinery tool

SLE-Module-Adv-Systems-Management12-Pool

SLE-Module-Adv-Systems-Management12-Updates

Containers Module: Docker, tools, prepackaged images

SLE-Module-Containers12-Pool

SLE-Module-Containers12-Updates

HPC Module: tools and libraries related to High Performance Computing

SLE-Module-HPC12-Pool

SLE-Module-HPC12-Updates

Legacy Module: Sendmail, old IMAP stack, old Java, …

SLE-Module-Legacy12-Pool

SLE-Module-Legacy12-Updates

Public Cloud Module: public cloud initialization code and tools

SLE-Module-Public-Cloud12-Pool

SLE-Module-Public-Cloud12-Updates

Toolchain Module: GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)

SLE-Module-Toolchain12-Pool

SLE-Module-Toolchain12-Updates

Web and Scripting Module: PHP, Python, Ruby on Rails

SLE-Module-Web-Scripting12-Pool

SLE-Module-Web-Scripting12-Updates

Table 1.3: Extension Repositories

Content

Base repository (Pool)

Update repository

SLE SDK

SLE-SDK12-SP3-Pool

SLE-SDK12-SP3-Updates

SUSE Package Hub

SUSE-PackageHub-12-SP3-Pool

SUSE-PackageHub-12-SP3-Updates

For more information about SUSE Package Hub, see Section A.2, “SUSE Package Hub”. For information about life cycle and support of modules and extensions, see Section 1.3, “Included Services”.

1.3 Included Services

Extended Service Pack Overlap Support (ESPOS)

Subscriptions for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications includes Extended Service Pack Overlap Support which extends the overlap between the support periods of two consecutive service packs by one year. Within this period, you remain under full support and receive all relevant maintenance updates. As a standard offering, this is unique.

Extended Service Pack Overlap Support allows you to perform service pack migrations within 18 months instead of only 6 months. Migrations can be scheduled more easily and testing before a migration can be performed under lesser time constraints.

At additional cost, SUSE also offers Long Term Service Pack Support (LTSS). With LTSS, you receive support for a particular service pack after ESPOS has run out. For more information about the life cycle of SUSE products, see:

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Priority Support for SAP Applications

Subscriptions for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Priority Support for SAP Applications which offers technical support for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications directly from SAP. The joint support infrastructure, used by support engineers from SUSE Technical Support and SAP, is based upon SAP Solution Manager and offers a seamless communication with both SAP and SUSE. This One Face to the Customer support model reduces complexity and lowers the total cost of ownership.

For more information, see SAP Note 1056161: SUSE Priority Support for SAP Applications (https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/1056161).

Important
Important: Life Cycle and Support for Modules and Extensions

Modules and extensions have a different life cycle than SLES for SAP and SUSE provides different support offerings for them:

  • Modules:

    • Life Cycle.  Varies depending on the module.

    • Support.  Only up-to-date packages are supported. Support is included with your subscription for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications. You do not need an additional registration key.

  • Extensions

    • Life Cycle.  Releases are usually coordinated with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

    • Support.  Support is available but not included with your subscription for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications. You need an additional registration key.

  • Unsupported Extensions (SUSE Package Hub and SUSE Software Development Kit)

    • Life Cycle.  Releases are usually coordinated with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

    • Support.  There is no support beyond fixes for security and packaging issues. You do not need an additional registration key.

2 Planning the Installation

Read this chapter carefully, as it helps you plan the installation: It lists requirements and helps you collect data about your system.

2.1 Hardware Requirements

This section lists minimum hardware requirements for the installation of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications and gives basic guidance on the expected hardware requirements of certain SAP software. For the most up-to-date information about the hardware requirements of SAP software, see the official sizing guidelines at https://service.sap.com/sizing.

CPU

Intel 64/AMD64

IBM POWER servers with PowerKVM compatibility

Hard Disk

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications requires at least 35 GB of hard disk space for the system volume plus space for the swap partition.

To install an SAP application such SAP NetWeaver, you need at least 200 GB of free disk space in addition to the required space for the operating system for the application's /data partition.

To install SAP HANA, you need either of:

  • An SAP BusinessOne-certified machine

  • A machine compatible with the requirements for SAP HANA TDI (Tailored Datacenter Integration). That is, you need the following amounts of free disk space in addition to the required space for the operating system:

    • 52 GB of free disk space for the partition /usr/sap

    • Space for three partitions for SAP HANA data: /hana/data (same size as RAM), /hana/log (same size as RAM up to maximum of 512 GB), and /hana/shared (same size as RAM up to maximum of 1 TB).

For more information about SAP HANA TDI storage requirements, see:

https://www.sap.com/docs/download/2015/03/74cdb554-5a7c-0010-82c7-eda71af511fa.pdf

RAM

The SUSE Linux Enterprise Server operating system itself requires a minimum of 512 MB of total RAM and a minimum of 256 MB of RAM per CPU core.

Any SAP software you install will need additional RAM.

To install SAP HANA, your machine needs a minimum of 24 GB of RAM.

For more information about configuring hardware for SAP HANA, see SAP Note 1944415: Hardware Configuration Guide and Software Installation Guide for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server with SAP HANA and SAP Business One (https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/1944415).

For more information about partitioning, see Section 2.6, “Partitioning”.

2.2 Downloading the Installation Image

  1. Download the ISO image of SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications 12 SP3 DVD 1 (electronic media kit) from https://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/.

  2. Burn the image onto a physical DVD and ensure that it is bootable. Alternatively, use a virtual DVD-ROM device for installation in a virtual machine.

2.3 Installation Methods

There are multiple ways of installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications:

2.4 Overview of the Installation Workflow

The installation workflow of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications can be separated into steps:

  1. Installation of the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server). See Section 3.1, “Using the Installation Workflow”.

  2. SAP Installation Wizard, part 1: Copying all required SAP media to the local disk or selecting a shared storage medium to use. See Section 4.3, “Using the SAP Installation Wizard”, in particular Step 1.

  3. SAP Installation Wizard, part 2: Collecting all parameters for the actual installation by querying the user interactively. See Section 4.3, “Using the SAP Installation Wizard”, in particular Step 10.

  4. SAP Installation Wizard, part 3: Running the SAP Installer. See Section 4.3, “Using the SAP Installation Wizard”, in particular Step 13.

Important
Important: Installation of Only SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

You can choose to only install a base SUSE Linux Enterprise Server system. In that case, only the first step of the installation workflow is executed.

This can be necessary when you want to install an Oracle database on a SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications machine. To do so, install the base product SUSE Linux Enterprise Server first, then install the Oracle database and later convert your installation to SLES for SAP. This is necessary because the installer of Oracle databases queries for the existence of certain files, not all of which are included in a SLES for SAP installation.

For more information about converting, see Section 3.4, “Converting a SLES Installation to a SLES for SAP Installation”.

Most of these steps do not need to be run immediately after each other which allows for flexibility in how you install systems. This means that you can prepare a single installation as a first step and then continue from there. For example:

  • Install the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server) only.

    or

  • Install the operating system (SUSE Linux Enterprise Server), copy SAP media, and collect SAP installation parameters.

Then, create disk images, copy them to other systems, and adjust SAP installation parameters. Finally, finish the installation on each machine individually.

2.5 Required Data for Installing

Operating System

The SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation requires the following data for every physical server:

  • Network configuration parameters, such as host name, domain, IP address, subnet mask, domain searchlist (DNS), IP for name server, IP for gateway

  • Administrator (root) password for the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation

SAP Application

The installation of an SAP application generally requires specifying:

  • SAP SID

  • SAP Instance Number

  • A password for the SAP application

Depending on the SAP application you are installing, more parameters may be necessary, such as T-Shirt Sizing or parameters for virtual networking.

SAP HANA Database

The installation of SAP HANA requires specifying:

  • SAP SID

  • SAP Instance Number

  • Whether to enable Multitenant Database Containers (MDC). The multi-tenant support of SAP HANA allows having multiple databases that run as one SAP HANA installation. (To use SAP HANA MDC, you need SAP HANA Life Cycle Manager.)

    For a single-tenant installation, choose No.

    For a multi-tenant instance administrated by one SIDadm user, choose Yes with low isolation.

    For a multi-tenant instance administrated in which each database has an own SIDadm user, choose Yes with high isolation.

  • A password for the SAP HANA database

For more information about installing SAP software, see the SAP documentation at https://help.sap.com and https://support.sap.com.

2.6 Partitioning

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications creates the partitioning table in two stages:

  1. Partitioning for the Operating System (stage 1) (during the installation of the operating system)

  2. Partitioning for the SAP System (stage 2) (during the installation of the SAP product)

2.6.1 Partitioning for the Operating System (stage 1)

During the installation of the operating system, partitions for the operating system are created.

A logical volume group (LVG) named /dev/system will be created. This LVG contains two logical volumes (LVs):

  • /dev/system/root: by default 60 GB to account for the operating system and SAP media

  • /dev/system/swap: by default 2 GB, avoid setting a smaller size. See also SAP Note 1984787: SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12: Installation notes (https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/1984787).

Additionally, a boot or UEFI partition will be created as necessary.

2.6.2 Partitioning for the SAP System (stage 2)

The partitioning for the SAP system can be created by:

This part of the partitioning can only be created after the operating system has been installed. That means the partitions are created either in the installation workflow after the reboot or in the running system.

Depending on the product you are installing and your particular use case, the amount of hard disk space necessary can vary.

For information on partitioning for the SAP system using AutoYaST, see Appendix B, Partitioning for the SAP System Using AutoYaST.

3 Installing the Operating System

The following section provides instructions for installing the base operating system. Using the installation workflow, you can install either using a local installation medium or over the network. Alternatively, you can install using AutoYaST.

3.1 Using the Installation Workflow

The installation workflow is a guided installation of the operating system with optimized settings for SAP applications. During the installation workflow, you can choose whether you want to install an SAP application. If so, you will be asked to provide SAP installation media when the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation is finished. You can also choose whether to install third-party extensions.

This section assumes that you are starting the installation from a local medium. To learn how to start the installation from a remote medium, see Section 3.2, “Using SLES for SAP Media from the Network”.

For more information, see Section 2.4, “Overview of the Installation Workflow”.

This section will guide you through the installation of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications operating system.

Procedure 3.1: Starting the OS Installation
    • On Intel 64/AMD64, boot from the DVD. From the DVD boot menu, select Installation.

    • On POWER, follow the instructions in the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server documentation, see Book Deployment Guide, Part Installation Preparation, Chapter Installation on IBM POWER (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

    DVD Boot Menu
    Figure 3.1: DVD Boot Menu

    While the initial operating system is starting, you can view boot messages by pressing Esc. When this process has completed, the graphical installation workflow will start.

  1. Select the default system language under Language.

    Language, Keyboard and License Agreement
    Figure 3.2: Language, Keyboard and License Agreement
  2. Select the appropriate keyboard layout under Keyboard Layout. To test whether the selected layout matches your physical keyboard, use the text box Keyboard Test.

  3. Read the license agreement. If you agree, select I Agree to the License Terms. Proceed with Next.

    Otherwise, cancel the installation with Abort › Abort Installation.

  4. (Optional) If automatic network configuration via DHCP fails, the screen Network Settings will open.

    If instead the screen Registration appears, your network connection works. To change network settings anyway, click Network Configuration.

    When you are finished configuring networking, proceed with Next.

    Important
    Important: Configure Networking as Recommended by SAP

    Make sure to configure the network connection as recommended in the documentation provided to you by SAP.

    For information about configuring networking, see Administration Guide, Chapter Basic Networking, Section Configuring a Network Connection with YaST (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

  5. On the screen Registration, enter your E-Mail Address and Registration Code. Successful registration is a prerequisite for receiving product updates and the entitlement to technical support.

    Proceed with Next.

    Important
    Important: Register at This Step

    Make sure to register your system at this step in the installation. Otherwise, you will not receive package updates immediately.

    Registration
    Figure 3.3: Registration
  6. When asked whether to enable update repositories, choose Yes.

  7. After the system is successfully registered, YaST lists additional software that is available for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications from the SUSE Customer Center. The list contains modules, which are free, and extensions, which require a registration key that is liable for costs. To enable a module or an extension, activate its entry.

    Proceed with Next.

  8. The following screen allows you to choose the Product Installation Mode. You can now choose between:

    • A SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Installation.  To install a SLES system without SAP-specific customization, choose Proceed with standard SLES installation. For details, see Installation Quick Start, Section Installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

      Important
      Important: Installing Oracle Databases

      To be able to install an Oracle database later, choose Proceed with standard SLES installation and later convert your installation to SLES for SAP.

      This is necessary because the installer for Oracle databases queries for the existence of certain files, not all of which are included in a SLES for SAP installation.

      For more information about converting, see Section 3.4, “Converting a SLES Installation to a SLES for SAP Installation”.

    • A SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Installation.  To install a SLES system with SAP-specific customization, choose Proceed with standard SLES for SAP Applications installation.

      • To install an SAP Application together with the system, activate Launch the SAP Installation Wizard right after the operating system is installed.

      • To enable RDP access (Remote Desktop Protocol) to this machine, activate Enable RDP service and open port in firewall.

        For more information about connecting via RDP, see Chapter 11, Connecting via RDP.

      Proceed with Next.

    Installation Type
    Figure 3.4: Installation Type
Procedure 3.2: Finishing the OS Installation
  1. You can now choose whether to install an Add On Product. Proceed with Next.

  2. Review the proposed partition setup for the volumes /dev/system/root and /dev/system/swap. The volume /dev/system/data will be created later, as described in Section 2.6, “Partitioning”.

    Suitable values are preselected. However, if necessary, change the partition layout. You have the following options:

    Edit Proposal Settings

    Allows you to change the options for the proposed settings, but not the suggested partition layout itself.

    Create Partition Setup

    Select a disk to which to apply the proposal.

    Expert Partitioner

    Open the Expert Partitioner described in Deployment Guide, Chapter Advanced Disk Setup, Section Using the YaST Partitioner (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

    For partitioning advice specific to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications, see Section 2.6, “Partitioning”.

    To accept the proposed setup without changes, proceed with Next.

    Suggested Partitioning
    Figure 3.5: Suggested Partitioning
    Note
    Note: Release Notes

    From this point on, the Release Notes can be viewed from any screen during the installation process by selecting Release Notes.

  3. Select the clock and time zone to use in your system. To manually adjust the time or to configure an NTP server for time synchronization, choose Other Settings. For detailed information, see Deployment Guide, Chapter Installation with YaST, Section Clock and Time Zone (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

    Proceed with Next.

  4. Type a password for the system administrator account (called root) and repeat the password under Confirm Password. You can use the text box Test Keyboard Layout to make sure that all special characters appear correctly.

    For more information, see Deployment Guide, Chapter Installation with YaST, Section Password for the System Administrator root (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

    Proceed with Next.

    Important
    Important: Do Not Forget the root Password

    The user root has the permission to carry out all administrative tasks. Without this password, you cannot log in to the system as root.

    After you have entered the root password here, it cannot be retrieved again.

  5. On the screen Installation Settings, you can review and, if necessary, change several proposed installation settings. Each setting is shown alongside its current configuration. To change parts of the configuration, click the appropriate headline or other underlined items.

    Important
    Important: Firewall Configuration

    The software firewall of SLES for SAP is enabled by default. However, often, the ports your SAP product requires to be open are not opened automatically. This means that there may be network issues until you open the required ports manually.

    For details, see Section 8.1, “Configuring SuSEFirewall2”.

    Installation Settings
    Figure 3.6: Installation Settings
  6. When you are satisfied with the system configuration, click Install.

    Depending on your software selection, you may need to agree to further license agreements before you are asked to confirm that you want to start the installation process.

    Warning
    Warning: Deletion of Data

    Starting the installation process means that information on the disk you are installing on will fully or partly be deleted.

    In the installation confirmation box, click Install.

    When the installation of the operating system is finished, the system will reboot automatically.

    • If you chose to only prepare the system for installation, the system will boot to a desktop login screen.

    • If you chose to install an SAP application immediately after the operating system, the installation will continue after the reboot.

      In this case, continue with Chapter 4, Installing SAP Applications.

3.2 Using SLES for SAP Media from the Network

This section provides a short description of how to install from an installation medium served over the network. This allows, for example, using a regular SLES medium to install SLES for SAP.

  1. Copy the content of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications DVD to a Web server (for example, example.com), to the directory /srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo.

  2. Boot from a SUSE DVD.

  3. Select one of the boot menu options using the keys /. Then add to the command line. To do so, specify the parameters listed below:

    • To allow network usage, add ifcfg=*=dhcp (though this should be the default).

    • Add the parameter install=SERVER/DIRECTORY.

  4. Follow the instructions in Section 3.1, “Using the Installation Workflow”.

For more information, see Deployment Guide, Chapter Remote Installation (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

To avoid having to use a DVD to initialize the system, you can boot over the network via PXE. For details, see AutoYaST Guide, Chapter Booting via PXE over the Network (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

3.3 Using an External AutoYaST Profile

For more information about installing with AutoYaST, see:

For more information about partitioning for SAP applications with AutoYaST, see Section 2.6, “Partitioning”.

If you plan to deploy SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications from a SUSE Manager server, refer to SUSE Manager Reference Manual, Systems, Autoinstallation and SUSE Manager Advanced Topics, Chapter Minimalist AutoYaST Profile for Automated Installations and Useful Enhancements (https://www.suse.com/documentation/suse-manager-3/).

3.4 Converting a SLES Installation to a SLES for SAP Installation

To convert an installation of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3 or JeOS 12 SP3 to an installation of SLES for SAP, use the script Migrate_SLES_to_SLES-for-SAP.sh. The script will register the system correctly and subscribe it to the appropriate repositories.

This script is not available from the default repositories of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server but only via the SUSE support page https://www.suse.com/support/kb/doc/?id=7018744. To use it, follow the instructions on the linked page. Make sure to use the version of this script that is appropriate for your operating system version.

Important
Important: Script Does Not Install Default SLES for SAP Packages

The script does not install all packages that are included with a default SLES for SAP installation. However, you can install these yourself manually. To install the default package selection, use:

root # zypper in patterns-sles-sap_server

4 Installing SAP Applications

This section will guide you through the installation of SAP media sets you received from SAP.

4.1 Products That Can Be Installed Using SAP Installation Wizard

Using the SAP Installation Wizard, you can install stand-alone SAP HANA database instances. Additionally, the following SAP products (along with a database) can be installed using the SAP Installation Wizard:

  • SAP S/4HANA, on-premise edition 1511

  • SAP NetWeaver 7.5

  • SAP NetWeaver 7.4 Support Release 2

  • SAP NetWeaver 7.4 Support Release 1

  • SAP NetWeaver 7.4

  • SAP Enhancement Package 1 for SAP NetWeaver 7.3

  • SAP NetWeaver 7.3

  • SAP NetWeaver Composition Environment (CE) 7.2

  • SAP EHP1 for SAP NetWeaver Composition Environment (CE) 7.1

  • SAP NetWeaver Composition Environment (CE) 7.1

  • SAP EHP1 for SAP NetWeaver Mobile/Banking 7.1

  • SAP EHP1 SAP NetWeaver Process Integration 7.1

  • SAP EHP1 for SAP NetWeaver Adaptive Computing Controller 7.1

  • SAP NetWeaver Mobile/Banking 7.1

  • SAP NetWeaver Process Integration 7.1

  • SAP NetWeaver Adaptive Computing Controller 7.1

  • SAP Business Suite powered by SAP HANA

  • SAP Business Suite 7i 2016

  • SAP Business Suite 7i 2013 Support Release 2

  • SAP Business Suite 7i 2013 Support Release 1

  • SAP Business Suite 7i 2011 Java

  • SAP Business Suite 7i 2010 Java

  • SAP Business Suite 7 Support Release 1 Java

  • SAP Solution Manager 7.2 Support Release 1

  • SAP Solution Manager 7.1 powered by SAP HANA

  • SAP NetWeaver AS ABAP 7.4, OEM version 1.0

Important
Important: Installation of Oracle Databases Not Possible

The SAP Installation Wizard does not allow installing products together with Oracle databases. To install an Oracle database, install the base product SUSE Linux Enterprise Server first, then install the Oracle database and later convert your installation to SLES for SAP. This is necessary because the installer of Oracle databases queries for the existence of certain files, not all of which are included in a SLES for SAP installation.

For more information about converting, see Section 3.4, “Converting a SLES Installation to a SLES for SAP Installation”.

4.2 First Steps

These first steps are only relevant during the installation workflow.

  1. When the system has booted, you will be presented with the screen Welcome. Proceed with Next.

  2. The screen Network Settings will now open. This gives you another chance to change the network settings.

    When you are finished configuring networking, proceed with Next.

    Important
    Important: Configure Networking as Recommended by SAP

    Make sure to configure the network connection as recommended by the documentation of your SAP application.

    For information about configuring networking, see Administration Guide, Chapter Basic Networking, Section Configuring a Network Connection with YaST (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

    (While the next screen loads, the Welcome screen may appear again for a few seconds.)

  3. You can now choose how to continue:

    Create SAP file systems and start SAP product installation

    Allows installing an SAP application and setting up the system as a server providing SAP installation routines to other systems.

    Continue with Section 4.3, “Using the SAP Installation Wizard”.

    Only create SAP HANA file systems, do not install SAP products now

    Create an SAP HANA file system on SAP BusinessOne-certified hardware.

    Important
    Important: Hardware Requirements

    Make sure your machine fulfills the hardware requirements for SAP HANA detailed in Section 2.1, “Hardware Requirements”. Otherwise, this option will not create a new file system and the installation workflow ends at this point.

    Finish wizard and proceed to OS login

    Do not install an SAP application and continue to the login screen of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

    Proceed with Next.

4.3 Using the SAP Installation Wizard

Use the SAP Installation Wizard to install an SAP NetWeaver system (including database) or a simple SAP HANA system (single tenant, same password for all initial users, default settings).

To install other SAP applications or to create a more sophisticated SAP HANA setup, directly use one of the installation methods provided by SAP instead of this wizard.

Tip
Tip: Installing an SAP Application in a Fully Installed System

This process is documented as it appears during the installation workflow. However, there is a functionally equivalent YaST dialog available within the installed system. It has a different color scheme and lacks the left pane.

To start the SAP Installer, from the desktop, choose Applications › System › YaST, continue in the YaST control center by choosing Miscellaneous › SAP Installation Wizard.

Tip
Tip: SAP Installation Wizard Configuration

The SAP Installation Wizard configuration is specified and documented in /etc/sysconfig/sap-installation-wizard. You can change it according to your needs.

  1. In the screen SAP Installation Wizard, provide the Location of the SAP Installation Master (Figure 4.1, “Location of SAP Installation Master”). The location can either be a local, removable, or remote installation source.

    Location of SAP Installation Master
    Figure 4.1: Location of SAP Installation Master

    Select the corresponding option from the drop-down box. In the text box, specify the path to your source according to the format given in the following table.

    Table 4.1: Media Source Path

    Option

    Description

    Format of Path

    Local Sources

    dir://

    a local directory

    /path/to/dir/

    Removable Sources

    device://

    a locally connected hard disk

    devicename/path/to/dir/on/device

    usb://

    a USB mass storage device

    /path/to/dir/on/USB

    cdrom://

    a CD or DVD

    //

    Remote Sources

    nfs://

    an NFS share

    server_name/path/to/dir/on/device

    smb://

    an SMB share

    [user_name:password@]server_name//path/to/dir/on/server[?workgroup=workgroup_name]

    Tip
    Tip: Remote Location Specification

    To install from an NFS source, specify the name of the server and the complete path to the media data. For information about setting up a remote installation server, see Chapter 5, Setting Up an Installation Server for SAP Media Sets.

    If you have installed from an installation server before or set up your system to be an installation server, you can also directly choose that server as the provider of the Installation Master. To do so, use the drop-down box below Choose an installation master.

  2. Under Advanced Options, choose from among the following options:

    Collect installation profiles for SAP products but do not execute installation

    Use this option to set the installation parameters, but not perform the actual installation. With this option, the SAP Installer (SAPinst) will stop without performing the actual SAP product installation. However, the following steps fully apply.

    For more information, see Section 4.4, “Continuing an Installation Using an Installation Profile”.

    Serve all installation media (including master) to local network via NFS

    Set up this system as an installation server for other SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications systems. The media copied to this installation server will be offered through NFS and can be discovered via Service Location Protocol (SLP).

    Proceed with Next.

    The SAP Installation Wizard will now copy the Installation Master to your local disk. Depending on the type of Installation Master you selected, the installation will continue differently:

    • If you are installing an SAP HANA database, skip ahead to Step 8.

    • If you are installing an SAP NetWeaver application, continue with the next step.

  3. On the screen SAP Installation Wizard, provide the location of additional Installation Media you want to install. This can include, for example an SAP kernel, a database, and database exports.

    Copy a medium

    Specify a path to additional Installation Media. For more information about specifying the path, see Table 4.1, “Media Source Path”.

    Skip copying of medium

    Do not copy additional Installation Media. Choose this option if you do not need additional Installation Media or to install additional Installation Media directly from their source, for example CDs/DVDs or flash disks.

    When choosing this option despite your SAP product requiring additional Installation Media, you will later need to provide the SAP Installer (SAPinst) with the relevant paths.

    Proceed with Next.

    If you chose to copy Installation Media, the SAP Installation Wizard will copy the relevant files to your local hard disk.

    SAP Installation Wizard: Additional Installation Media
    Figure 4.2: SAP Installation Wizard: Additional Installation Media
  4. After copying the Installation Media, you will be asked whether you want to prepare more Installation Media. To do so, click Yes. Then follow the instructions in Step 3.

    Otherwise, click No.

  5. You will now see the screen What Would You Like to Install. Under The SAP product is, choose how you want to install the product:

    SAP Standard System

    Install an SAP application including its database onto this system.

    SAP Standalone Engines

    Engines that add functionality to a standard product: SAP TREX, SAP Gateway, and Web Dispatcher.

    Distributed System

    An SAP application that is separated onto multiple servers.

    SAP High-Availability System

    Installation of SAP NetWeaver in a high-availability setup.

    System Rename

    Allows changing the various system properties such as the SAP system ID, database ID, instance number or host name. This is useful, for example, to install the same product in a very similar configuration on different systems.

    SAP Installation Wizard: Installation Type and Database
    Figure 4.3: SAP Installation Wizard: Installation Type and Database
  6. If you selected SAP Standard System, Distributed System, or SAP High-Availability System, additionally choose a back-end database under The back-end database system is.

    Proceed with Next.

  7. You will now see the screen Choose a Product. The products shown depend on the Media Set and Installation Master you received from SAP. From the list, choose the product you want to install.

    Proceed with Next.

    SAP Installation Wizard: Choose a Product
    Figure 4.4: SAP Installation Wizard: Choose a Product
  8. You will be asked whether to copy Supplementary Media or Third-Party Media. To do so, click Yes and then follow the instructions in Step 3.

    Otherwise, click No.

    Note
    Note: Difference Between Supplementary Media/Third-Party Media and Additional Software Repositories

    Both types of delivery mechanisms allow installing software that is neither part of the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications media nor part of your Media Set from SAP. However, the delivery mechanism is different:

    • Supplementary Media/Third-Party Media is installed using an AutoYaST file which allows creating an installation wizard and custom installation scripts.

    • Additional software repositories are RPM package repositories that you will remain subscribed to. This means, you receive updates for Third-Party Media along with your regular system updates.

    For information on creating Supplementary Media, see Appendix C, Supplementary Media.

  9. On the screen Additional software repositories for your SAP installation, you can add further software repositories. For example, for add-ons that are packaged as RPM. To do so, click Add new software repositories. For more information about adding repositories, see Deployment Guide, Chapter Installing and Removing Software, Section Adding Software Repositories (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

    Proceed with Next.

    Note
    Note: Location of Copied SAP Media

    At this point, all data required for the SAP installation has been copied to /data/SAP_CDs (unless you chose to skip the process of copying). Each Installation Medium is copied to a separate directory. You might find the following directory structure, for example:

    tux > ls /data/SAP_CDs
    742-KERNEL-SAP-Kernel-742
    742-UKERNEL-SAP-Unicode-Kernel-742
    RDBMS-MAX-DB-LINUX_X86_64
    SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-1-3
    SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-2-3
    SAP-NetWeaver-740-SR2-Installation-Export-CD-3-3

    /data/SAP_CDs is the default directory as specified in the /etc/sysconfig/sap-installation-wizard configuration file.

  10. Depending on the product you are installing, one or more dialogs will now prompt you to supply values for several configuration parameters for the SAP application you are installing.

    Supply the values as described in the documentation provided to you by SAP. Help for the configuration parameters is also available at the left side of the dialog. For more information, see Section 2.5, “Required Data for Installing”.

    Fill out the form (or forms), then proceed with OK.

    Dialog to configure product parameters
    Figure 4.5: Product Parameters

    When you are done, the SAP Installation Wizard will download additional software packages.

  11. You will be asked whether to continue the installation or prepare another SAP product for installation. If you choose to prepare another SAP product, start from the beginning of this procedure.

  12. (Optional) When installing SAP HANA on a system that is not certified for SAP HANA and does not meet the minimum hardware requirements for SAP HANA TDI (Tailored Datacenter Integration), you will be asked whether to continue. If you receive this message unexpectedly, check Section 2.1, “Hardware Requirements” and the sizing guidelines from SAP at https://service.sap.com/sizing.

    Otherwise, continue with Yes.

  13. The following steps differ somewhat depending on the type of SAP application you are installing:

    • When installing an SAP HANA database, SAP HANA will now be installed without further question.

    • When installing an SAP NetWeaver application, the actual installation will be performed using the SAP Installer (SAPinst). After a few seconds, SAP Installer will open automatically.

      Follow the steps of SAP Installer as described in the documentation provided to you by SAP. Many values for configuration parameters are already pre-filled correctly.

    SAP Installer: Defining Parameters
    Figure 4.6: SAP Installer: Defining Parameters
    Tip
    Tip: Installation Log Files

    If the installation of the SAP application fails, refer to the installation log files. They are located in /var/adm/autoinstall. Failed installations are recorded in files with names ending in .err.

    For more information about log files, see Chapter 13, Important Log Files.

  14. The final screen is Installation Completed.

    To create an AutoYaST file for this installation, activate Clone This System for AutoYaST. The AutoYaST file will be placed in /root/autoinst.xml.

    Click Finish.

4.4 Continuing an Installation Using an Installation Profile

If you chose Collect installation profiles but do not execute installation during the previous run of the SAP Installation Wizard, this section will show you how to continue the installation of the selected SAP applications.

When collecting an installation profile, the SAP Installation Wizard copies product images to /data/SAP_CDs. It also prepares an installation environment for every product under the path /data/SAP_INST:

/data/SAP_INST/0/Instmaster
/data/SAP_INST/1/Instmaster
/data/SAP_INST/2/Instmaster
[...]

These files are re-used in the following. To continue the installation, follow these steps:

  1. In /etc/sysconfig/sap-installation-wizard, set the following:

    SAP_AUTO_INSTALL="yes"
  2. In the case of an SAP HANA/SAP BusinessOne installation, the SAP Installation Wizard will later use the parameters documented in the AutoYaST files in /data/SAP_INST/number.

    If you need to change any parameters, make sure to adapt the AutoYaST files at this point.

  3. Open the YaST control center and start SAP Installation Wizard.

  4. You will be asked whether to continue the pending installation. Select Install.

  5. All further interactions happen within the SAP Installer. Follow the steps of SAP Installer as described in the documentation provided to you by SAP.

    • In the case of an SAP NetWeaver installation, all parameters of the SAP Installer will be offered again for fine-tuning.

    • In the case of an SAP HANA/SAP BusinessOne installation, the installer will not be offering to make any changes to parameters.

4.5 Partitioning for an SAP Application Without the SAP Installation Wizard

If you do not want to use the SAP Installation Wizard, you can also create the partitioning for SAP applications directly from the command line. First, find the correct partitioning file in the directory /usr/share/YaST2/include/sap-installation-wizard/ or create an own partitioning file. For more information, see Section 2.6.2, “Partitioning for the SAP System (stage 2)”.

When you have determined the correct partitioning XML file, run:

root # yast2 sap_create_storage ABSOLUTE_PATH_TO_PARTITIONING_FILE

4.6 Automated Installation of SAP Applications with AutoYaST

The SAP Installation Wizard can be used from AutoYaST to automate the installation of SAP Applications.

4.6.1 SAP HANA Installation

The following AutoYaST snippet shows how an SAP HANA or SAP TREX installation can be automated:

<sap-inst>
  <products config:type="list">
    <product>
      <media config:type="list">
        <medium>
          <url>nfs://server/path1</url>
          <type>sap</type>
        </medium>
        <medium>
          <url>nfs://server/path3</url>
          <type>supplement</type>
        </medium>
      </media>
      <sapMasterPW>PASSWORD</sapMasterPW>
      <sid>SID</sid>
      <sapInstNr>INSTANCE_NUMBER</sapInstNr>
      <sapMDC>no</sapMDC>
    </product>
  </products>
</sap-inst>
  • The sapMDC element is only applicable to SAP HANA.

  • The sapVirtHostname element must be specified for distributed or highly available installations.

For a full SAP HANA example, including partitioning, see /usr/share/doc/packages/sap-installation-wizard/hana-autoyast.xml.

4.6.2 SAP NetWeaver Installation

For SAP NetWeaver, the following example shows how the installation can be automated. Specifically, this example is tailored to installing ASCS Instance of an SAP NetWeaver 7.5 ABAP Server distributed system with MaxDB (product ID NW_ABAP_ASCS:NW750.ADA.ABAP). When installing other products based on SAP NetWeaver, not all of the following variables may be necessary or these variables might need to be replaced by others:

  • The master password for the SAP NetWeaver instance: MASTER_PASSWORD

  • The SAP Identifier (SID): SID

  • The SAP kernel: KERNEL

  • The SAP instance number: INSTANCE_NUMBER

  • The ASCS virtual host name: ASCS_VIRTUAL_HOSTNAME

  • The SCS virtual host name: SCS_VIRTUAL_HOSTNAME

<sap-inst>
  <products config:type="list">
    <product>
      <media config:type="list">
        <medium>
          <url>nfs://SERVER/PATH1</url>
          <type>sap</type>
        </medium>
        <medium>
          <url>nfs://SERVER/PATH2</url>
          <type>sap</type>
        </medium>
        <medium>
          <url>nfs://SERVER/PATH3</url>
          <type>supplement</type>
        </medium>
      </media>
      <productID>NW_ABAP_ASCS:NW750.ADA.ABAP</productID>
      <iniFile>
        <![CDATA[
# Password for the Diagnostics Agent specific <dasid>adm user. Provided value
# may be encoded.
DiagnosticsAgent.dasidAdmPassword =

# Windows domain in which the Diagnostics Agent users must be created.
# The property is Microsoft Windows only. This is an optional property.
DiagnosticsAgent.domain =

# Password for the Diagnostics Agent specific SAPService<DASID> user.
# Provided value may be encoded.
# The property is Microsoft Windows only.
DiagnosticsAgent.sapServiceDASIDPassword =

NW_GetMasterPassword.masterPwd = MASTER_PASSWORD

# Human readable form of the Default Login language - valid names are stored
# in a table of the subcomponent NW_languagesInLoadChecks. Used when freshly
# installing an ABAP stack for the machine that performs an ABAP load (in the
# case of a distributed system, that is the database, otherwise it is used by
# the normal installer). The available languages must be declared in the
# LANGUAGES_IN_LOAD parameter of the product.xml . In this file, the one
# character representation of the languages is used. Check the same table in
# the subcomponent mentioned above.
NW_GetSidNoProfiles.SAP_GUI_DEFAULT_LANGUAGE =

# The drive to use (Windows only)
NW_GetSidNoProfiles.sapdrive =

# The /sapmnt path (Unix only)
NW_GetSidNoProfiles.sapmnt = /sapmnt

# The SAP System ID of the system to install
NW_GetSidNoProfiles.sid = SID

# Will this system be unicode system?
NW_GetSidNoProfiles.unicode = true

NW_SAPCrypto.SAPCryptoFile = /data/SAP_CDs/745-UKERNEL-SAP-Unicode-Kernel-745/DBINDEP/SAPEXE.SAR

NW_SCS_Instance.ascsInstanceNumber =

NW_SCS_Instance.ascsVirtualHostname = ASCS_VIRTUAL_HOSTNAME

NW_SCS_Instance.instanceNumber = INSTANCE_NUMBER

NW_SCS_Instance.scsInstanceNumber =

NW_SCS_Instance.scsMSPort =

NW_SCS_Instance.scsVirtualHostname = SCS_VIRTUAL_HOSTNAME

NW_System.installSAPHostAgent = true

NW_Unpack.igsExeSar =

NW_Unpack.igsHelperSar =

NW_Unpack.sapExeDbSar =

NW_Unpack.sapExeSar =

NW_Unpack.sapJvmSar =

NW_Unpack.xs2Sar =

NW_adaptProfile.templateFiles =

# The FQDN of the system.
NW_getFQDN.FQDN =

# Do we want to set the FQDN for the system?
NW_getFQDN.setFQDN = false

# The path to the JCE policy archive to install into the Java home directory
# if it is not already installed.
NW_getJavaHome.jcePolicyArchive =

hostAgent.domain =

# Password for the SAP Host Agent specific sapadm user. Provided value may be
# encoded.
hostAgent.sapAdmPassword = MASTER_PASSWORD

nwUsers.sapDomain =

nwUsers.sapServiceSIDPassword =

nwUsers.sidadmPassword =
            ]]>
      </iniFile>
    </product>
  </products>
</sap-inst>

5 Setting Up an Installation Server for SAP Media Sets

Using the SAP Installation Wizard, it is possible to copy the SAP media sets from a remote server (for example, via NFS or SMB). However, using the option provided there means that you need to install the product at the same time. Additionally, it does not allow for copying all SAP media used in your organization to a single server.

However, you can easily create such a server on your own. For example, if you want to put the SAP media sets on an NFS Server, proceed as follows:

  1. On your installation server, create the directory /srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo.

  2. Open the file /etc/exports and add the following:

    /srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo *(ro,root_squash,sync)
  3. In /srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo, create a directory for every SAP medium you have. Give these directories speaking names, so you can identify them late. For example, you could use names like kernel, java, or maxdb.

  4. Copy the contents of each SAP medium to the corresponding directory with cp -a.

    Important
    Important: Avoid Using Windows* Operating Systems for Copying

    Using Windows operating system for copying or copying from/to Windows file systems like NTFS can break permission settings and capitalization of files and directories.

You can now install from the NFS server you set up. In the SAP Installation Wizard, specify the path this way: server_name/srv/www/htdocs/sap_repo. For more information about specifying the path, see Table 4.1, “Media Source Path”.

For information about installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server from an NFS server, see Deployment Guide, Chapter Remote Installation, Section Setting Up an NFS Repository Manually (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

6 Setting Up an SAP HANA Cluster

You can use a YaST wizard to set up SAP HANA or SAP S/4HANA Database Server clusters according to best practices, including SAP HANA system replication. A summary of the setup options is given in Section 1.1.3, “Simplified SAP HANA System Replication Setup”.

The following Best Practices from the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Resource Library (https://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/resource-library/) contain setup instructions:

  • Performance-optimized scenario and multi-tier/chained scenario:  Setting up a SAP HANA SR Performance Optimized Infrastructure

  • Cost-optimized scenario:  Setting up a SAP HANA SR Cost Optimized Infrastructure

Important
Important: Wizard Can Only Be Used for Initial Configuration

The YaST wizard described in the following can only be used for the initial cluster configuration.

To reconfigure a cluster, use the separate YaST module Cluster (available from package yast2-cluster). For more information about its usage, see Administration Guide, Part Installation, Setup and Upgrade, Chapter Using the YaST Cluster Module at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/.

6.1 Prerequisites

The following procedure has prerequisites:

  • Two machines which both have an SAP HANA installation created by the SAP Installation Wizard or SAP HANA Application Lifecycle Management. Both machines need to be on the same L2 network (subnet).

    In the case of a multi-tier/chained scenario, there must also be a third machine elsewhere.

  • The machines are not yet set up as a high-availability cluster.

  • openSSH is running on both machines and the nodes can reach each other via SSH. However, if that has not already happened, the wizard will perform the SSH key exchange itself.

    For more information about SSH, see Security Guide, Part Network Security, Chapter SSH: Secure Network Operations at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/.

  • A disk device that is available to both nodes under the same path for SBD. It must not use host-based RAID, cLVM2 or reside on a DRBD instance. The device can have a small size, for example, 100 MB.

  • You have created either of the following:

    • A key in the SAP HANA Secure User Store on the primary node

    • An initial SAP HANA backup on the primary node

  • The package yast2-sap-ha is installed on both the primary and the secondary node.

  • HANA-Firewall is set up on both computers with the rules HANA_HIGH_AVAILABILITY and HANA_SYSTEM_REPLICATION on all relevant network interfaces.

    For information about setting up HANA-Firewall, see Section 8.2, “Configuring HANA-Firewall”.

  • Cost-optimized scenario only: The secondary node has a second SAP HANA installation. The database may be running but will be stopped automatically by the wizard.

  • Cost-optimized scenario only: For the non-production SAP HANA instance, you have created an SAP HANA Secure User Store key QASSAPDBCTRL for monitoring purposes. For more information, see SAP HANA SR Cost Optimized Scenario, Chapter Installing the SAP HANA Databases on both cluster nodes, Section Postinstallation configuration, Section Install the non-productive SAP HANA database (QAS) at https://www.suse.com/products/sles-for-sap/resource-library/.

6.2 Setup

The following procedure needs to be executed on the primary node (also called the master). Before proceeding, make sure the prerequisites listed in Section 6.1, “Prerequisites” are fulfilled.

  1. Open the YaST control center. In it, click HA Setup for SAP Products in the category High Availability.

  2. If an SAP HANA instance has been detected, you can choose between the scale-up scenarios Performance-optimized, Cost-optimized, or Chained (multi-tier). For information about these scale-up scenarios, see Section 1.1.3, “Simplified SAP HANA System Replication Setup”.

    Continue with Next.

    Screenshot of replication scenario selection
  3. This step of the wizard presents a list of prerequisites for the chosen scale-up scenario. These prerequisites are the same as those presented in Section 6.1, “Prerequisites”.

    Continue with Next.

  4. The next step lets you configure the communication layer of your cluster.

    • Provide a name for the cluster.

    • The default transport mode Unicast is usually appropriate.

    • Under Number of rings, a single communication ring usually suffices.

      For redundancy, it is often better to use network interface bonding instead of multiple communication rings. For more information, see Administration Guide, Part Configuration and Administration, Chapter Network Device Bonding at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/.

    • From the list of communication rings, configure each enabled ring. To do so, click Edit selected, then select a network mask (IP address) and a port (Port number) to communicate over.

      Finish with OK.

    • Additionally, decide whether to enable the configuration synchronization service Csync2 and Corosync secure authentication using HMAC/SHA1.

      For more information about Csync2, see Administration Guide Part Installation, Setup and Upgrade, Chapter Using the YaST Cluster Module, Section Transferring the Configuration to All Nodes at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/.

      For more information about Corosync secure authentication, see Administration Guide Part Installation, Setup and Upgrade, Chapter Using the YaST Cluster Module, Section Defining Authentication Settings at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/.

    Proceed with Next.

    Screenshot of communication layer configuration
  5. The wizard will now check whether it can connect to the secondary machine using SSH. If it can, it will ask for the root password to the machine.

    Enter the root password.

    The next time, the primary machine needs to connect to the secondary machine, it will connect using an SSH certificate instead of a password.

  6. For both machines, set up the host names and IP address (for each ring).

    To use virtual host addressing, host names must match the virtual host names chosen in SAP HANA. For more information, see https://help.sap.com/saphelp_hanaplatform/helpdata/en/9a/012d6438764459a581e6af55a87c46/content.

    If this has not already been done before, such as during the initial installation of SAP HANA, host names of all cluster servers must now be added to the file /etc/hosts. For this purpose, activate Append to /etc/hosts.

    Proceed with Next.

  7. If NTP is not yet set up, do so. This avoids the two machines from running into issues because of time differences.

    1. Click Reconfigure.

    2. On the tab General Settings, activate Now and on Boot.

    3. Add a time server by clicking Add. Click Server and Next. Then specify the IP address of a time server outside of the cluster. Test the connection to the server by clicking Test.

      To use a public time server, click Select › Public server and select a time server. Finish with OK.

      Proceed with OK.

    4. On the tab Security Settings, activate Open Port in Firewall.

    5. Proceed with Next.

  8. In the next step, choose fencing options. The only supported fencing mechanism is currently SBD (STONITH block device). To avoid split-brain situations, SBD uses a disk device which stores cluster state.

    The chosen disk must be available from all machines in the cluster under the same path. Ideally, use either by-uuid or by-path for identification.

    The disk must not use host-based RAID, cLVM2 or reside on a DRBD instance. The device can have a small size, for example, 100 MB.

    Warning
    Warning: Data on Device Will Be Lost

    All data on the chosen SBD device or devices will be deleted.

    To define a device to use, click Add, then choose an identification method such as by-uuid and select the appropriate device. Click OK.

    To define additional SBD command-line parameters, add them to SBD options.

    If your machines reboot particularly fast, activate Delay SBD start.

    For more information about fencing, see the Administration Guide at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/.

    Proceed with Next.

  9. The following page allows configuring watchdogs which protect against the failure of the SBD daemon itself and force a reboot of the machine in such a case.

    It also lists watchdogs already configured using YaST and watchdogs that are currently loaded (as detected by lsmod).

    To configure a watchdog, use Add. Then choose the correct watchdog for your hardware and leave the dialog with OK.

    For testing, you can use the watchdog softdog. However, we highly recommend using a hardware watchdog in production environments instead of softdog. For more information about selecting watchdogs, see Administration Guide, Part Storage and Data Replication, Chapter Storage Protection, Section Conceptual Overview, Section Setting Up Storage-based Protection, Section Setting up the Watchdog at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/.

    Proceed with Next.

  10. Set up the parameters for your SAP HANA installation or installations. If you have selected the cost-optimized scenario, additionally, fill out details related to the non-production SAP HANA instance.

    Production SAP HANA Instance
    • Make sure that the System ID and Instance number match those of your SAP HANA configuration.

    • Replication mode and Operation mode usually do not need to be changed.

      For more information about these parameters, see the HANA Administration Guide provided to you by SAP.

    • Under Virtual IP address, specify a virtual IP address for the primary SAP HANA instance. Under Virtual IP Mask, set the length of the subnetwork mask in CIDR format to be applied to the Virtual IP address.

    • Prefer site takeover defines whether the secondary instance should take over the job of the primary instance automatically (true). Alternatively, the cluster will restart SAP HANA on the primary machine.

    • Automatic registration determines whether primary and secondary machine should switch roles after a takeover.

    • Specify the site names for the production SAP HANA instance on the two nodes in Site name 1 and Site name 2.

    • Having a backup of the database is a precondition for setting up SAP HANA replication.

      If you have not previously created a backup, activate Create initial backup. Under Backup settings, configure the File name and the Secure store key for the backup. The key in the SAP HANA Secure User Store on the primary node must have been created before starting the wizard.

      For more information, see the documentation provided to you by SAP.

    • Cost-optimized scenario only: Within Production system constraints, configure how the production instance of SAP HANA should behave while inactive on the secondary node.

      Setting the Global allocation limit allows directly limiting memory usage. Activating Preload column tables will increase memory usage.

      For information about the necessary global allocation limit, see documentation provided to you by SAP such as How to Perform System Replication for SAP HANA at https://archive.sap.com/documents/docs/DOC-47702.

    Cost-optimized Scenario Only: Non-production SAP HANA Instance
    • Make sure that the System ID and Instance number match those of your non-production SAP HANA instance.

      These parameters are needed to allow monitoring the status of the non-production SAP HANA instance using the SAPInstance resource agent.

    • Generate a hook script for stopping the non-production instance and starting the production instance and removing the constraints on the production system. The script is written in Python 2 and can be modified as necessary later.

      Click Hook script and then set up the correct user name and password for the database. Then click OK.

      You can now manually verify and change the details of the generated hook script. When you are done, click OK to save the hook script at /hana/shared/SID/srHook.

      Warning
      Warning: Passwords Stored in Plain Text

      By default, the hook script stores all credentials in plain text. To improve security, modify the script yourself.

    Proceed with Next.

    Screenshot of SAP HANA options (cost-optimized scenario)
    Figure 6.1: SAP HANA Options (Cost-Optimized Scenario)
  11. On the page High-Availability Configuration Overview, check that the setup is correct.

    To change any of the configuration details, return to the appropriate wizard page by clicking one of the underlined headlines.

    Proceed with Install.

  12. When asked whether to install additional software, confirm with Install.

  13. After the setup is done, there is a screen showing a log of the cluster setup.

    To close the dialog, click Finish.

  14. Multi-tier/chain scenario only: Using the administrative user account for the production SAP HANA instance, register the out-of-cluster node for system replication:

    SIDadm > hdbnsutil -sr_register --remoteHost=SECONDARY_HOST_NAME \
    --remoteInstance=INSTANCE_NUMBER --replicationMode=async \
    --name=SITE_NAME

6.3 Using Hawk

After you have set up the cluster using the wizard, you can open Hawk. directly from the last screen of the HA Setup for SAP Products wizard.

To revisit Hawk, open a browser and as the URL, enter the IP address or host name of any cluster node running the Hawk Web service. Alternatively, enter the virtual IP address you configured in Section 6.2, “Setup”.

https://HAWKSERVER:7630/

On the Hawk login screen, use the following login credentials:

  • Username: hacluster

  • Password: linux

Important
Important: Secure Password

Replace the default password with a secure one as soon as possible:

root # passwd hacluster

For more information about Hawk, see Administration Guide, Part Configuration and Administration, Chapter Configuring and Managing Cluster Resources with Hawk (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sle-ha-12/).

7 Tuning

This chapter presents information about tuning SLES for SAP to work optimally with SAP applications.

7.1 Kernel: Page-Cache Limit

Problem

The kernel swaps out rarely accessed memory pages to use freed memory pages as cache to speed up file system operations, for example during backup operations.

SAP NetWeaver and SAP HANA use large amounts of memory for accelerated access to business data. Parts of this memory are rarely accessed. When a user request needs to access paged-out memory, the response time is poor. It is even worse when an SAP application running on Java incurs a Java garbage collection: The system starts heavy page-in (disk I/O) activity and has a poor response time for an extended period of time.

Solution

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications includes a kernel tuning option that allows the system administrator to limit the amount of page cache that the kernel uses when there is competition between application memory and page cache. This option tells the kernel that when the page cache is filled to the configured limit, application memory is more important and should thus not be paged out. No pages will be paged out if the memory footprint of the workload plus the configured page-cache limit do not exceed the amount of physical RAM in the system.

These kernel options are available for configuration:

  • vm.pagecache_limit_mb (/proc/sys/vm/pagecache_limit_mb)

  • vm.pagecache_limit_ignore_dirty (/proc/sys/vm/pagecache_limit_ignore_dirty)

Tip
Tip: Use saptune to Configure Parameters

The parameters vm.pagecache_limit_mb and vm.pagecache_limit_ignore_dirty are also configured by the tuned profiles delivered with saptune.

For more information, see Section 7.2, “Tuning Systems with saptune.

Important
Important: The Following Are Example Values

The values reproduced in Example 7.1, “Permanently Setting the Page-Cache Limit” are example values only. Do not set the following parameters on a productive system without first trying and calibrating them on a non-productive system.

If your system does not exhibit page-cache limit issues under the workloads it is running, there is no need to adjust these parameters.

For more information, see SAP Note 1557506: Linux Paging Improvements (https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/1557506).

Example 7.1: Permanently Setting the Page-Cache Limit

For permanent use, add both parameters to /etc/sysctl.conf, for example:

vm.pagecache_limit_mb = 1024
vm.pagecache_limit_ignore_dirty = 2

7.2 Tuning Systems with saptune

Using saptune, you can tune a system for SAP NetWeaver, SAP HANA/SAP BusinessOne, and SAP S/4HANA applications. This method relies on the system tuning service tuned.

If you used the SAP Installation Wizard to install an SAP application, tuned is usually already active and configured with a profile for the application you installed.

If you did not use the SAP Installation Wizard to install an SAP application, make sure that the packages tuned and saptune are installed on your system.

7.2.1 Enabling saptune to Tune for an SAP Application

  1. To tune a system, first find a tuning profile. To find the appropriate profile, use:

    tux > saptune solution list

    saptune knows the following solution profiles:

    • BOBJ Profile for servers hosting SAP BusinessObjects.

    • HANA Profile for servers hosting an SAP HANA database.

    • MAXDB Profile for servers hosting a MaxDB database.

    • NETWEAVER Profile for servers hosting an SAP NetWeaver application.

    • S4HANA-APPSERVER Profile for servers hosting an SAP S/4HANA application.

    • S4HANA-DBSERVER Profile for servers hosting the SAP HANA database of an SAP S/4HANA installation.

    • SAP-ASE Profile for servers hosting an SAP Adaptive Server Enterprise database (formerly Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise).

    Alternatively, you can tune the computer according to recommendations from specific SAP Notes. A list of notes that you can tune for is available via:

    root # saptune note list

    The referenced SAP Notes are available from the SAP Web site. The list entries starting with SUSE-GUIDE follow the recommendations made in https://www.suse.com/communities/blog/sles-1112-os-tuning-optimisation-guide-part-1/ and https://www.suse.com/communities/blog/sles-1112-network-cpu-tuning-optimization-part-2/.

    • To set up saptune with a preconfigured solution, use:

      root # saptune solution apply SOLUTION
    • To set up saptune for the recommendations of a specific SAP Note, use:

      root # saptune note apply NOTE
    Tip
    Tip: Combining Optimizations

    You can freely combine solutions and notes. Combining multiple optimizations will never create conflicts.

  2. Finally, enable the tuned profile saptune and make sure the tuned daemon is active:

    root # saptune daemon start

In the background, saptune applies a tuned profile also named saptune that is dynamically customized according to selected solutions and notes. Using tuned-adm list, you can also see this profile.

7.2.2 Disabling saptune

To disable saptune, use one of the following ways:

  • Completely disable the daemon tuned:

    root # systemctl disable tuned
  • Switch to a different tuned profile:

    root # tuned-adm profile PROFILE_NAME

7.2.3 Tuning Kernel Parameters Manually Using sysctl

In addition to or instead of tuning kernel parameters using saptune, you can also use sysctl to make manual adjustments to kernel parameters. However, such changes using sysctl do not persist across reboots by default. To make them persist across reboots, add them to the file /etc/sysctl.conf (or another configuration file read by sysctl).

For more information about sysctl, see the man pages sysctl(8), sysctl.conf(5), and sysctl.d(5).

7.2.4 For More Information

See the following man pages:

  • man 8 tuned-adm

  • man 8 saptune

Also see the project home page https://github.com/HouzuoGuo/saptune/.

7.3 Tuning Systems with the Basic Utility sapconf

In addition to saptune, the package sapconf contains the basic utility sapconf. sapconf also allows tuning for SAP systems but is less comprehensive and offers less granularity than saptune. However, unlike saptune, sapconf is available directly in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server and thus not dependent on using SLES for SAP.

sapconf and saptune both rely on the daemon tuned to set tuning configuration but they use different (though at times very similar) tuning profiles. Therefore, only one of sapconf or saptune can be enabled at a time.

7.3.1 Enabling and Disabling sapconf

To enable sapconf when tuned is not yet running, use:

root # sapconf start

By default, this will enable sap-netweaver profile. To apply a different profile, use:

root # tuned-adm PROFILE_NAME

Replace PROFILE_NAME with one of the profiles listed in Section 7.3.2, “tuned Profiles”.

To see the status of sapconf, use:

root # sapconf status

To disable sapconf along with the underlying daemon tuned, use:

root # systemctl disable sapconf tuned

7.3.2 tuned Profiles

The package sapconf includes the following tuned profiles which sapconf enables in the background:

  • sap-ase

  • sap-bobj

  • sap-hana

  • sap-netweaver

In general, these profiles map to the solution profiles listed in Procedure 7.0, “”.

7.3.3 For More Information

See the man page of sapconf (man 8 sapconf).

8 Firewalling

This chapter presents information about restricting access to the system using firewalling and encryption and gives information about connecting to the system remotely.

8.1 Configuring SuSEFirewall2

By default, the installation workflow of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications enables SuSEFirewall2. The firewall needs to be manually configured to allow network access for the following:

Additionally, open the ports 1128 (TCP) and 1129 (UDP).

SAP applications require many open ports and port ranges in the firewall. The exact numbers depend on the selected instance. For more information, see the documentation provided to you by SAP.

8.2 Configuring HANA-Firewall

To simplify setting up a firewall for SAP HANA, install the package HANA-Firewall. Whereas standard SuSEFirewall2 allows only three zones (internal, DMZ, and external), HANA-Firewall enables you to configure more zones to accommodate SAP HANA properly.

HANA-Firewall works by adding rule sets to your existing SuSEFirewall2 configuration.

HANA-Firewall consists of the following parts:

  • YaST Module SAP HANA Firewall Allows configuring, applying, and reverting firewall rules for SAP HANA from a graphical user interface.

  • Command-Line Utility hana-firewall Allows applying and reverting the configured firewall rules for SAP HANA.

    If you prefer, you can configure the rule sets using the configuration file at /etc/sysconfig/hana-firewall instead of using YaST.

  • Service hana-firewall Ensures that configured firewall rules for SAP HANA are kept.

Important
Important: SAP HANA MDC Databases

For multi-tenant SAP HANA (MDC) databases, determining the port numbers that need to be opened is not yet possible automatically. If you are working with a multi-tenant SAP HANA database system, before you use YaST, run a script on the command line to create a new service definition:

root # cd /etc/hana-firewall.d
root # ./create_new_service

You need to switch to the directory /etc/hana-firewall.d, otherwise the rule file for the new service will be created in a place where it cannot be used.

The script will ask several questions: Importantly, it will ask for TCP and UDP port ranges that need to be opened.

Note
Note: Install HANA-Firewall Packages

Before continuing, make sure that the packages HANA-Firewall and yast2-hana-firewall are installed.

Procedure 8.1: Using HANA-Firewall
  1. Make sure the SAP HANA databases for which you want to configure the firewall are correctly installed.

  2. To open the appropriate YaST module, select Applications › YaST, Security and Users › SAP HANA Firewall.

  3. When you open this YaST module, it will create a configuration proposal based on the number of installed SAP HANA instances.

    Choose whether you want to accept the proposal using Yes or No.

    Important
    Important: Narrow Down Settings from Proposal

    The proposed settings allow all detected SAP HANA instances on all detected network interfaces. Narrow down the proposal to secure the system further.

  4. Under Global Options, activate Enable Firewall. Additionally, decide whether to Allow Remote Shell Access (SSH).

  5. Choose a network interface under Allowed Services on Network Interface.

  6. Allow network services by selecting them in the list box on the left and clicking . Remove services by selecting them in the list box on the right and clicking .

    To add services other than the preconfigured ones, add them using the following notation:

    SERVICE_NAME:CIDR_NOTATION

    For more information about the CIDR notation, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classless_Inter-Domain_Routing. To find out which services are available on your system, use getent services.

    HANA-Firewall screenshot
  7. Repeat from Step 5 for all network interfaces.

  8. When you are done, click OK.

    The firewall rules from HANA-Firewall will now be compiled and applied. Then, the service hana-firewall will be restarted.

  9. Finally, check whether HANA-Firewall was enabled correctly:

    root # hana-firewall status
    HANA firewall is active. Everything is OK.
    Tip
    Tip: Checking Which Firewall Rules Are Enabled

    Gaining an overview of which firewall rules are enabled in the current configuration of the script is possible using the command line:

    root # hana-firewall dry-run

For more information, see the man page of hana-firewall.

8.3 SAProuter Integration

The SAProuter software from SAP allows proxying network traffic between different SAP systems or between an SAP system and outside networks. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications now provides integration for SAProuter into systemd. This means, SAProuter will be started and stopped properly with the operating system and can be controlled using systemctl.

Before you can use this functionality, make sure the following has been installed, in this order:

  • An SAP application that includes SAProuter

  • The SAProuter systemd integration, packaged as systemd-saprouter

If you got the order of applications to install wrong initially, reinstall systemd-saprouter.

To control SAProuter with systemctl, use:

  • Enabling the SAProuter Service: systemctl enable saprouter

  • Starting the SAProuter Service: systemctl start saprouter

  • Showing the Status of SAProuter Service: systemctl status saprouter

  • Stopping the SAProuter Service: systemctl stop saprouter

  • Disabling the SAProuter Service: systemctl disable saprouter

9 Encrypting Directories Using cryptctl

cryptctl consists of two components:

  • A client is a machine that has one or more encrypted partitions but does not permanently store the necessary key to decrypt those partitions. For example, clients can be cloud or otherwise hosted machines.

  • The server holds encryption keys that can be requested by clients to unlock encrypted partitions.

    You can also set up the cryptctl server to store encryption keys on a KMIP 1.3-compatible (Key Management Interoperability Protocol) server. In that case, the cryptctl server will not store the encryption keys of clients and is dependent upon the KMIP-compatible server to provide these.

Warning
Warning: cryptctl Server Maintenance

Since the cryptctl server manages timeouts for the encrypted disks and, depending on the configuration, can also hold encryption keys, it should be under your direct control and managed only by trusted personnel.

Additionally, it should be backed up regularly. Losing the server's data means losing access to encrypted partitions on the clients.

To handle encryption, cryptctl uses LUKS with aes-xts-256 encryption and 512-bit keys. Encryption keys are transferred using TLS with certificate verification.

The client asks the server for the disk decryption key, the server responds
Figure 9.1: Key Retrieval with cryptctl (Model Without Connection to KMIP Server)
Note
Note: Install cryptctl

Before continuing, make sure the package cryptctl is installed on all machines you intend to set up as servers or clients.

9.1 Setting Up a cryptctl Server

Before you can define machine as a cryptctl client, you need to set up a machine as a cryptctl server.

Before beginning, choose whether to use a self-signed certificate to secure communication between the server and clients. If not, generate a TLS certificate for the server and have it signed by a certificate authority.

Additionally, you can have clients authenticate to the server using certificates signed by a certificate authority. To use this extra security measure, make sure to have a CA certificate at hand before starting this procedure.

  1. As root, run:

    root # cryptctl init-server
  2. Answer each of the following prompts and press Enter after every answer. If there is a default answer, it is shown in square brackets at the end of the prompt.

    1. Choose a password with at least 10 characters and confirm it. This password assumes the role of a master password, able to unlock all partitions that are registered on the server.

    2. Specify the path to a PEM-encoded TLS certificate or certificate chain file or leave the field empty to create a self-signed certificate. If you specify a path, use an absolute path.

    3. If you want the server to be identified by a host name other than the default shown, specify a host name. cryptctl will then generate certificates which include the host name.

    4. Specify the IP address that belongs to the network interface that you want to listen on for decryption requests from the clients, then set a port number (the default is port 3737).

      The default IP address setting, 0.0.0.0 means that cryptctl will listen on all network interfaces for client requests using IPv4.

    5. Specify a directory on the server that will hold the decryption keys for clients.

    6. Specify whether clients need to authenticate to the server using a TLS certificate. If you choose No, this means that clients authenticate using disk UUIDs only. (However, communication will be encrypted using the server certificate in any case.)

      If you choose Yes, pick a PEM-encoded certificate authority to use for signing client certificates.

    7. Specify whether to use a KMIP 1.3-compatible server (or multiple such servers) to store encryption keys of clients. If you choose this option, provide the host names and ports for one or multiple KMIP-compatible servers.

      Additionally, provide a user name, password, a CA certificate for the KMIP server, and a client identity certificate for the cryptctl server.

      Important
      Important: No Easy Reconfiguration of KMIP Setting

      The setting to use a KMIP server cannot easily be changed later. To change this setting, both the cryptctl server and its clients need to be configured afresh.

    8. Finally, configure an SMTP server for e-mail notifications for encryption and decryption requests or leave the prompt empty to skip setting up e-mail notifications.

      Note
      Note: Password-Protected Servers

      cryptctl currently cannot send e-mail using authentication-protected SMTP servers. If that is necessary, set up a local SMTP proxy.

    9. When asked whether to start the cryptctl server, enter y.

  3. To check the status of the service cryptctl-server, use:

    root # systemctl status cryptctl-server

To reconfigure the server later, do either of the following:

  • Run the command cryptctl init-server again. cryptctl will then propose the existing settings as the defaults, so that you only need to the specify values that you want to change.

  • Make changes directly in the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/cryptctl-server.

    However, to avoid issues, do not change the settings AUTH_PASSWORD_HASH and AUTH_PASSWORD_SALT manually. The values of these options need to be calculated correctly.

9.2 Setting Up a cryptctl Client

The following interactive setup of cryptctl is currently the only setup method.

Make sure the following preconditions are fulfilled:

  • A cryptctl server is available over the network.

  • There is a directory to encrypt.

  • The client machine has an empty partition available that is large enough to fit the directory to encrypt.

  • When using a self-signed certificate, the certificate (*.crt file) generated on the server is available locally on the client. Otherwise, the certificate authority of the server certificate must be trusted by the client.

  • If you set up the server to require clients to authenticate using a client certificate, prepare a TLS certificate for the client which is signed by the CA certificate you chose for the server.

  1. As root, run:

    root # cryptctl encrypt
  2. Answer each of the following prompts and press Enter after every answer. If there is a default answer, it is shown in square brackets at the end of the prompt.

    1. Specify the host name and port to connect to on the cryptctl server.

    2. If you configured the server to have clients authenticate to it using a TLS certificate, specify a certificate and a key file for the client. The client certificate must be signed by the certificate authority chosen when setting up the server.

    3. Specify the absolute path to the server certificate (the *.crt file).

    4. Enter the encryption password that you specified when setting up the server.

    5. Specify the path to the directory to encrypt. Specify the path to the empty partition that will contain the encrypted content of the directory.

    6. Specify the number of machines that are allowed to decrypt the partition simultaneously.

      Then specify the timeout in seconds before additional machines are allowed to decrypt the partition after the last vital sign was received from the client or clients.

      When a machine unexpectedly stops working and then reboots, it needs to be able to unlock its partitions again. That means, this timeout should be set to a time slightly shorter than the reboot time of the client.

      Important
      Important: Timeout Length

      If the time is set too long, the machine cannot decrypt encrypted partitions on the first try. cryptctl will then continue to periodically check whether the encryption key has become available. However, this will introduce a delay.

      If the timeout is set too short, machines with a copy of the encrypted partition have an increased chance of unlocking the partition first.

  3. To start encryption, enter yes.

    cryptctl will now encrypt the specified directory to the previously empty partition and then mount the newly encrypted partition. The file system type will be of the same type as the original unencrypted file system.

    Before creating the encrypted partition, cryptctl moves the unencrypted content of the original directory to a location prefixed with cryptctl-moved-.

  4. To check that the directory is indeed mounted correctly, use:

    tux > lsblk -o NAME,MOUNTPOINT,UUID
    NAME                        MOUNTPOINT          UUID
    [...]
    sdc
    └─sdc1                                          PARTITION_UUID
      └─cryptctl-unlocked-sdc1  /secret-partition   UNLOCKED_UUID

    cryptctl identifies the encrypted partition by its UUID. In the previous example, that is the UUID displayed next to sdc1.

    On the server, you can check whether the directory was decrypted using cryptctl:

    root # cryptctl list-keys
    2016/10/10 10:00:00 ReloadDB: successfully loaded database of 1 records
    Total: 1 records (date and time are in zone EDT)
    Used By      When                  UUID  Max.Users  Num.Users  Mount Point
    IP_ADDRESS   2016-10-10 10:00:00   UUID  1          1          /secret-partition

    Verify that the UUID shown is that of the previously encrypted partition.

  5. After verifying that the encrypted partition works, delete the unencrypted content from the client. For example, use rm. For more safety, overwrite the content of the files before deleting them, for example, using shred -u.

    Important
    Important: shred Does Not Guarantee That Data Is Completely Erased

    Depending on the type of storage media, using shred is not a guarantee that all data is completely removed. In particular, SSDs usually employ wear leveling strategies that render shred ineffective.

The configuration for the connection from client to server is stored in /etc/sysconfig/cryptctl-client and can be edited manually.

The server stores an encryption key for the client partition in /var/lib/cryptctl/keydb/PARTITION_UUID.

9.3 Checking Partition Unlock Status Using Server-side Commands

When a cryptctl client is active, it will send a heartbeat to the cryptctl server every 10 seconds. If the server does not receive a heartbeat from the client for the length of the timeout configured during the client setup, the server will assume that the client is offline. It will then allow another client to connect (or allow the same client to reconnect after a reboot).

To see the usage status of all keys, use:

root # cryptctl list-keys

The information under Num. Users shows whether the key is currently in use. To see more detail on a single key, use:

root # cryptctl show-key UUID

This command will show information about mount point, mount options, usage options, the last retrieval of the key and the last three heartbeats from clients.

Additionally, you can use journalctl to find logs of when keys were retrieved.

9.4 Unlocking Encrypted Partitions Manually

There are two ways of unlocking a partition manually, both of which are run on a client:

  • Online Unlocking.  Online unlocking allows circumventing timeout or user limitations. This method can be used when there is a network connection between client and server but the client could not (yet) unlock the partition automatically. This method will unlock all encrypted partitions on a machine.

    To use it, run cryptctl online-unlock. Be prepared to enter the password specified when setting up the server.

  • Offline Unlocking.  This method can be used when a client cannot or must not be brought online to communicate with its server. The encryption key from the server must still be available. This method is meant as a last resort only and can only unlock a single partition at a time.

    To use it, run cryptctl offline-unlock. The server's key file for the requisite partition (/var/lib/cryptctl/keydb/PARTITION_UUID) needs to be available on the client.

9.5 Maintenance Downtime Procedure

To ensure that partitions cannot be decrypted during a maintenance downtime, turn off the client and disable the cryptctl server. You can do so by either:

  • Stopping the service cryptctl-server:

    root # systemctl stop cryptctl-server
  • Unplugging the cryptctl server from the network.

9.6 For More Information

For more information, also see the project home page https://github.com/HouzuoGuo/cryptctl/.

10 Protecting Against Malware With ClamSAP

ClamSAP integrates the ClamAV anti-malware toolkit into SAP NetWeaver and SAP Mobile Platform applications. ClamSAP is a shared library that links between ClamAV and the SAP NetWeaver Virus Scan Interface (NW-VSI). The version of ClamSAP shipped with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications 12 SP3 supports NW-VSI version 2.0.

10.1 Installing ClamSAP

  1. On the application host, install the packages for ClamAV and ClamSAP. To do so, use the command:

    tux > sudo zypper install clamav clamsap
  2. Start the service clamd:

    tux > sudo systemctl start clamd
  3. Check the status of the service clamd with:

    tux > systemctl status clamd
    ● clamd.service - ClamAV Antivirus Daemon
    Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/clamd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
    Active: active (running) since Tue 2017-04-11 10:33:03 UTC; 24h ago
    [...]

10.2 Creating a Virus Scanner Group in SAP NetWeaver

  1. Log in to the SAP NetWeaver installation through the GUI. Do not log in as a DDIC or SAP* user, because the virus scanner needs to be configured cross-client.

  2. Create a Virus Scanner Group using the transaction VSCANGROUP.

    Edit View Scanner Group with editable table
  3. To switch from view mode to change mode, click the button Change View (Change View).

    Confirm the message This table is cross-client by clicking the check mark. The table is now editable.

  4. Select the first empty row. In the text box Scanner Group, specify CLAMSAPVSI. Under Group Text, specify CLAMSAP.

    Make sure that Business Add-in is not checked.

    Edit View Scanner Group with editable table
  5. To save the form, click the button Save (Save).

10.3 Setting Up the ClamSAP Library in SAP NetWeaver

  1. In the SAP NetWeaver GUI, call the transaction VSCAN.

  2. To switch from view mode to change mode, click the button Change View (Change View).

    Confirm the message This table is cross-client by clicking the check mark. The table is now editable.

  3. Click New entries.

  4. Fill in the form accordingly:

    • Provider Type: Adapter (Virus Scan Adapter)

    • Provider Name: VSA_HOSTNAME (for example: VSA_SAPSERVER)

    • Scanner Group: The name of the scanner group that you set up in Section 10.2, “Creating a Virus Scanner Group in SAP NetWeaver” (for example: CLAMSAPVSI)

    • Server: HOSTNAME_SID_INSTANCE_NUMBER (for example: SAPSERVER_P04_00)

    • Adapter Path: libclamsap.so

    Form New Entries: Details of Added Entries
  5. To save the form, click the button Save.

10.4 Engaging ClamSAP

To run ClamSAP, go to the transaction VSCAN. Then click Start.

Change View “Virus Scan Provider Definition”
Figure 10.1: Change View Virus Scan Provider Definition

Afterward, a summary will be displayed, including details of the ClamSAP and ClamAV (shown in Figure 10.2, “Summary of ClamSAP Data”).

Summary of ClamSAP Data
Figure 10.2: Summary of ClamSAP Data

10.5 For More Information

For more information, also see the project home page https://sourceforge.net/projects/clamsap/.

11 Connecting via RDP

If you installed SLES for SAP with the RDP option activated or if you installed from a KIWI image, RDP is enabled on the machine via the service xrdp. Alternatively, you can enable RDP later as described at the end of this section.

You can connect using any software that supports RDP, such as:

  • Linux:  Vinagre (available in SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop/SLE Workstation Extension and openSUSE) or Remmina (available in openSUSE)

  • Windows:  Remote Desktop Connection

Important
Important: Connection Parameters

Make sure to set up the connection with the following parameters:

  • Port:  3389

  • Color Depth:  16-bit or 24-bit only

Procedure 11.1: Setting Up RDP

If you have not set up an RDP connection during the installation, you can also do so later using the following instructions.

  1. First, create an exception for the firewall. Start by creating a file that sets up the port that needs to be opened for RDP.

    As root, create a new file under /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2.d/services/ with the name xrdp and the following content:

    ## Name: Remote Desktop Protocol
    TCP="3389"
  2. Open the file /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2 and change the lines for the settings FW_CONFIGURATIONS_EXT, FW_CONFIGURATIONS_DMZ, and FW_CONFIGURATIONS_INT to include xrdp. If there are no other services enabled, the respective lines should read:

    FW_CONFIGURATIONS_EXT="xrdp"
    FW_CONFIGURATIONS_DMZ="xrdp"
    FW_CONFIGURATIONS_INT="xrdp"

    If there are other services, separate them within the quotes using a space character.

  3. Now set up xrdp itself.

    If the package xrdp is not installed, install it:

    root # zypper install xrdp
  4. Enable and start the service:

    root # systemctl restart SuSEfirewall2
  5. Enable and start the service:

    root # systemctl enable xrdp
    root # systemctl start xrdp

    You can now connect to the machine.

12 Creating Operating System Images

There are multiple ways to create custom operating system images from SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications. The preferred way is generally to use KIWI which ingests an XML configuration file and then runs fully automatically.

12.1 Creating Images with KIWI

KIWI is a tool to create operating system images that can be easily copied to new physical or virtual machines. This section will present information on creating SLES for SAP images with KIWI.

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications now supports creating images with KIWI using the template from the package kiwi-template-sap. However, there are certain restrictions in the current implementation:

  • Only building VMX disk images is supported. Building other image types is not supported.

  • You must provide an ISO image of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications at /tmp/SLES4SAP.iso, as the Open Build Service does not contain all necessary packages.

To build a basic image, use the following two commands:

  1. Build the root file system:

    root # kiwi -p SLES4SAP --root fsroot
  2. Build the VMX image:

    root # kiwi --create fsroot --type vmx -d build

To enable running graphical installations using SAPinst, the default settings of the image enable the following:

  • Installation of an IceWM desktop

  • The service xrdp is started automatically, so you can connect to the machine via RDP. For more information, see Chapter 11, Connecting via RDP.

For more information about KIWI and SLES for SAP:

12.2 Cleaning Up an Instance Before Using It as a Master Image

In some cases, it makes sense to use an image of an already-configured master instance on multiple systems instead of generating a KIWI image from scratch. For example, when your image needs to contain additional software or configuration that cannot be installed using KIWI.

However, normally such an image would contain certain configuration data that should not be copied along with the rest of the system.

To avoid needing to clean up manually, use the script clone-master-clean-up (available from the package of the same name).

It deletes the following data automatically:

  • Swap device (zero-wiped, then re-enabled)

  • SUSE registration information and repositories from SUSE, and the Zypper ID

  • User and host SSH keys and domain and host names

  • The generated HANA-Firewall script (but not the configuration itself)

  • Shell history, mails, cron jobs, temporary files (/tmp, /var/tmp), log files (/var/log), random seeds, systemd Journal, collectd statistics, postfix configuration, parts of /root

  • /var/cache, /var/crash, /var/lib/systemd/coredump

Additionally, the following configuration is restored to defaults:

  • Network interfaces that do not use DHCP and network configuration (/etc/hostname, /etc/hosts, and /etc/resolv.conf)

  • sudo settings

Additionally, you can choose to set up a new root password. UUID-based entries in /etc/fstab are replaced by device strings. This script also ensures that, if the first-boot section of the installation workflow was used for the original installation, it is run again on the next boot.

12.2.1 Configuring clone-master-clean-up

Before running clone-master-clean-up, the script can be configured in the following ways:

  • To configure the script to not clean up certain data, use the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/clone-master-clean-up.

    This file also gives short explanations of the available options.

  • To configure the script to clean up additional directories or files, create a list with the absolute paths of such directories and files:

    /additional/file/to/delete.now
    /additional/directory/to/remove

    Save this list as /var/adm/clone-master-clean-up/custom_remove.

12.2.2 Using clone-master-clean-up

To use the script, do:

root # clone-master-clean-up

Then follow the instructions.

12.2.3 For More Information

The following sources provide additional information about clone-master-clean-up:

  • For general information, see the man page clone-master-clean-up.

  • For information on which files and directories might additionally be useful to delete, see /var/adm/clone-master-clean-up/custom_remove.template.

13 Important Log Files

The most important files for this product are:

  • The SAP Installation Wizard is a YaST module. You can find its log entries in /var/log/YaST/y2log.

  • All SAP knowledge is bundled in a library. You can find its log entries in /var/log/SAPmedia.log.

  • You can find log files related to auto-installation in /var/adm/autoinstall/logs.

A Additional Software for SLES for SAP

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications makes it easy to install software that is not included with your subscription:

  • Extensions and modules allow installing additional software created and supported by SUSE. For more information about extensions and modules, see Deployment Guide, Part Initial System Configuration, Chapter Installing Modules, Extensions, and Third Party Add-On Products at https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/.

  • SUSE Connect Program allows installing packages created and supported by third parties, specifically for SLES for SAP. It also gives easy access to third-party trainings and support. See Section A.1, “SUSE Connect Program”.

  • SUSE Package Hub allows installation of packages created by SUSE Linux Enterprise community without support. See Section A.2, “SUSE Package Hub”.

A.1 SUSE Connect Program

Start SUSE Connect Program from the YaST control center using SUSE Connect Program. Choose from the available options. To enable a software repository, click Add repository.

All software enabled by SUSE Connect Program originates from third parties. For support, contact the vendor in question. SUSE does not provide support for these offerings.

Note
Note: SUSEConnect command-line tool

The SUSEConnect command-line tool is a separate tool with a different purpose: It allows you to register installations of SUSE products.

A.2 SUSE Package Hub

SUSE Package Hub provides many packages for SLE that were previously only available on openSUSE. Packages from SUSE Package Hub are created by the community and come without support. The selection includes, for example:

  • The R programming language

  • The Haskell programming language

  • The KDE 5 desktop

To enable SUSE Package Hub, add the repository as described at https://packagehub.suse.com/how-to-use/.

For more information, see the SUSE Package Hub Web site at https://packagehub.suse.com.

B Partitioning for the SAP System Using AutoYaST

Partitioning for the SAP system is controlled by the files from the directory /usr/share/YaST2/include/sap-installation-wizard/. The following files can be used:

  • SAP NetWeaver or SAP S/4HANA Application Server Installation.  base_partitioning.xml

  • SAP HANA or SAP S/4HANA Database Server Installation.  hana_partitioning.xml

  • SAP HANA or SAP S/4HANA Database Server Installation on SAP BusinessOne-Certified Hardware.  hardware-specific partitioning file

The files will be chosen as defined in /etc/sap-installation-wizard.xml. Here, the content of the element partitioning is decisive.

If the installation is, for example, based on HA or a distributed database, no partitioning is needed. In this case, partitioning is set to NO and the file base_partitioning.xml is used.

Note
Note: autoinst.xml Cannot Be Used Here

autoinst.xml is only used for the installation of the operating system. It cannot control the partitioning for the SAP system.

The files that control partitioning are AutoYaST control files that contain a partitioning section only. However, these files allow using several extensions to the AutoYaST format:

  • If the partitioning_defined tag is set to true, the partitioning will be performed without any user interaction.

    By default, this is only used when creating SAP HANA file systems on systems certified for SAP HANA (such as from Dell, Fujitsu, HP, IBM, or Lenovo).

  • For every partition, you can specify the size_min tag. The size value can be given as a string in the format of RAM*N. This way you can specify how large the partition should minimally be (N times the size of the available memory (RAM)).

Procedure B.1: Creating a Custom SAP Partitioning Setup

The steps below illustrates how to create a partitioning setup for TREX. However, creating a partitioning setup for other applications works analogously.

  1. In /usr/share/YaST2/include/sap-installation-wizard/, create a new XML file. Name it TREX_partitioning.xml, for example.

  2. Copy the content of base_partitioning.xml to your new file and adapt the new file to your needs.

  3. Finally, adapt /etc/sap-installation-wizard.xml to include your custom file. In the listitem for TREX, insert the following line:

    <partitioning>TREX_partitioning</partitioning>
Important
Important: Do Not Edit base_partitioning.xml

Do not edit base_partitioning.xml directly. With the next update, this file will be overwritten.

For more information about partitioning with AutoYaST, see AutoYaST Guide, Chapter Partitioning (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

C Supplementary Media

Supplementary Media allow partners or customers to add their own tasks or workflows to the Installation Wizard.

This is done by adding an XML file which will be part of an AutoYaST XML file. To be included in the workflow, this file must be called product.xml.

This can be used for various types of additions, such as adding your own RPMs, running your own scripts, setting up a cluster file system or creating your own dialogs and scripts.

C.1 product.xml

The product.xml file looks like a normal AutoYaST XML file, but with some restrictions.

The restrictions exist because only the parts of the XML that are related to the second stage of the installation are run, as the first stage was executed before.

Both XML files (autoyast.xml and product.xml) will be merged after the media is read and a new AutoYaST XML file is generated on the fly for the additional workflow.

The following areas or sections will be merged:

<general>
  <ask-list>         1
  ...
<software>           2
  <post-packages>
  ...
<scripts>
  <chroot-scripts>   3
  <post-scripts>     4
  <init-scripts>     5
  ...

1

see Section C.2, “Own AutoYaST Ask Dialogs”

2

see Section C.3, “Installing Additional Packages”

3

after the package installation, before the first boot

4

during the first boot of the installed system, no services running

5

during the first boot of the installed system, all services up and running

All other sections will be replaced.

For more information about customization options, see AutoYaST Guide, Chapter Configuration and Installation Options, Section Custom User Scripts (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

C.2 Own AutoYaST Ask Dialogs

For more information about the Ask feature of AutoYaST, see AutoYaST Guide, Chapter 4 Configuration and Installation Options, Section 4.33 Ask the User for Values During Installation (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/).

For the Supplementary Media, you can only use dialogs within the cont stage (<stage>cont</stage>), which means they are executed after the first reboot.

Your file with the dialogs will be merged with the base AutoYaST XML file.

As a best practice, your dialog should have a dialog number and an element number, best with steps of 10. This helps to include later additions and could be used as targets for jumping over a dialog or element dependent on decisions. We also use this in our base dialogs and if you provide the right dialog number and element number, you can place your dialog between our base dialogs.

You can store the answer to a question in a file, to use it in one of your scripts later. Be aware that you must use the prefix /tmp/ay for this, because the Installation Wizard will copy such files from the /tmp directory to the directory where your media data also will be copied. This is done because the next Supplementary Media could have the same dialogs or same answer file names and would overwrite the values saved here.

Here is an example with several options:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE profile>
<profile xmlns="http://www.suse.com/1.0/yast2ns"
         xmlns:config="http://www.suse.com/1.0/configns">
<general>
  <ask-list config:type="list">
      <ask>
          <stage>cont</stage>
          <dialog config:type="integer">20</dialog>
          <element config:type="integer">10</element>
          <question>What is your name?</question>
          <default>Enter your name here</default>
          <help>Please enter your full name within the field</help>
          <file>/tmp/ay_q_my_name</file>
          <script>
             <filename>my_name.sh</filename>
             <rerun_on_error config:type="boolean">true</rerun_on_error>
             <environment config:type="boolean">true</environment>
             <source><![CDATA[
function check_name() {
           local name=$1
           LC_ALL=POSIX
           [ -z "$name" ] && echo "You need to provide a name." && return 1
           return 0
}
check_name "$VAL"
]]>
             </source>
             <debug config:type="boolean">false</debug>
             <feedback config:type="boolean">true</feedback>
          </script>
      </ask>
  </ask-list>
</general>
</profile>

C.3 Installing Additional Packages

You can also install RPM packages within the product.xml file. To do this, you can use the <post-packages> element for installation in stage 2.

For more information, see AutoYaST Guide, Chapter Configuration and Installation Options, Section Installing Packages in Stage 2 (https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/). An example looks as follows:

...
<software>
 <post-packages config:type="list">
  <package>yast2-cim</package>
 </post-packages>
</software>
...

C.4 Example Directory for Supplementary Media

A minimal example for Supplementary Media directory contains only a file called product.xml.

D Documentation Updates

This section contains information about documentation content changes made to the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Guide.

This document was updated on the following dates:

D.1 September 7, 2017—SLES for SAP 12 SP3 FCS

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Chapter 2, Planning the Installation,

Added link to SAP help and support portals (documentation comment #33499).

Chapter 2, Planning the Installation, Chapter 4, Installing SAP Applications

Updated chapters with information about support for SAP HANA MDC and SAP HANA TDI (FATE#322281, FATE#320408).

Section 3.1, “Using the Installation Workflow”

Updated section with reference to description of installation on POWER in SLES documentation (FATE#320639).

Chapter 9, Encrypting Directories Using cryptctl

Updated chapter with information about support client certificates and KMIP (FATE#322293, FATE#322979).

Section 3.4, “Converting a SLES Installation to a SLES for SAP Installation”

Added section about converting from SLES to SLES for SAP (FATE#320636, FATE#320568).

Chapter 7, Tuning

Updated list of profiles integrated into saptune and sapconf (FATE#320359). Created own section for sapconf.

Section 12.2, “Cleaning Up an Instance Before Using It as a Master Image”

Clarified usage of clone-master-clean-up (DocComment#32698). Added information about new configuration options (FATE#322066).

D.2 May 10, 2017—SLES for SAP 12 SP2 Documentation Update

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Section 1.1, “Software Components”

Added links to project Web sites (FATE#323178).

Section 1.2, “Software Repository Setup” , Section 1.3, “Included Services”

Added information about repositories and support for extensions and modules (bsc#1022275).

Section 6.2, “Setup”

softdog is supported but not recommended (bsc#1022511).

Section 7.2, “Tuning Systems with saptune

Documented disabling saptune/sapconf (FATE#322069).

Chapter 10, Protecting Against Malware With ClamSAP

Added new chapter (FATE#322612).

Section A.2, “SUSE Package Hub”

Added link to official usage instructions on the Web.

D.3 December 07, 2016—SLES for SAP 12 SP2 Documentation Update

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Section 2.1, “Hardware Requirements”

Clarified RAM requirements.

Chapter 6, Setting Up an SAP HANA Cluster

Added new chapter (FATE#319068).

Section 8.2, “Configuring HANA-Firewall”

Updated UI description (FATE#320376, FATE#320564).

Section 8.3, “SAProuter Integration”

Added new section (FATE#320566).

Appendix A, Additional Software for SLES for SAP

Added new appendix (FATE#320373).

Chapter 7, Tuning , Chapter 9, Encrypting Directories Using cryptctl

Clarifications.

D.4 November 07, 2016—SLES for SAP 12 SP2 FCS

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Section 1.1, “Software Components”

Updated list of components.

Section 1.2, “Software Repository Setup”

Added section (bsc#320632).

Chapter 3, Installing the Operating System, Chapter 4, Installing SAP Applications

Updated chapters to match new installation wizards. Added list of supported SAP products (FATE#320454).

Section 4.5, “Partitioning for an SAP Application Without the SAP Installation Wizard”

Added section (bsc#929623).

Chapter 7, Tuning, Chapter 8, Firewalling, Chapter 12, Creating Operating System Images, Chapter 13, Important Log Files

Separated former chapter Configuration into smaller chapters.

Section 7.2, “Tuning Systems with saptune

Updated section to refer to saptune (FATE#320361, FATE#320362, FATE#320633).

Chapter 9, Encrypting Directories Using cryptctl

Added section (FATE#320367).

Chapter 11, Connecting via RDP

Added section (FATE#320363).

Appendix B, Partitioning for the SAP System Using AutoYaST

Moved parts of Section 2.6.2, “Partitioning for the SAP System (stage 2)” that related to AutoYaST only to a new section.

D.5 March 23, 2016

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

D.6 February 29, 2016

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Section 12.2, “Cleaning Up an Instance Before Using It as a Master Image”

Add new section.

Section 12.1, “Creating Images with KIWI”

Add new section.

Section 2.2, “Downloading the Installation Image”

Clarify that only DVD 1 is necessary for installation (doccomment#30069).

Other updates

Other corrections and small language updates.

D.7 February 15, 2016

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Updates to the Structure of the Guide

Improve organization of the guide by updating its structure. Chapter 2, Planning the Installation, Chapter 4, Installing SAP Applications, Configuring SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications, and Chapter 5, Setting Up an Installation Server for SAP Media Sets are now chapters instead of sections.

Appendix C, Supplementary Media is now an appendix instead of section.

Section 2.6, “Partitioning” is now a section within Chapter 2, Planning the Installation instead of a chapter.

Merge Section 1.1, “Software Components” and Chapter 5, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications Components.

Move Section 3.2, “Using SLES for SAP Media from the Network” from Chapter 3, Remote Installation from a Network Server to Chapter 3, Installing the Operating System.

Move Section 2.5, “Required Data for Installing” from Chapter 3, Installing the Operating System to Chapter 2, Planning the Installation.

Move certain information from Section 1.1.4, “Installation Workflow” to Section 2.4, “Overview of the Installation Workflow”.

Chapter 1, What Is SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications?

Add figure.

Section 1.1.3, “Simplified SAP HANA System Replication Setup”

Add information on supported scenarios.

Section 1.1.6, “Malware Protection with ClamSAP”

Mention added support for NW-VSI 2.0.

Section 1.1.7, “SAP HANA Security”

Add new section.

Section 1.1.8, “Simplified Operations Management”

Add new section.

Section 3.1, “Using the Installation Workflow”

Remove outdated installation options. Update Installation Workflow.

Section 3.3, “Using an External AutoYaST Profile”

Remove information that duplicated.

Chapter 4, Installing SAP Applications

Update Installation Workflow.

Section 8.2, “Configuring HANA-Firewall”

Add new section.

Section 7.2, “Tuning Systems with saptune

Add new section.

D.8 May 29, 2015

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Section 1.1, “Software Components”

Add more information on SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension.

There are also White Papers about SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications.

Chapter 2, Planning the Installation

Provide ISO image download URL.

Section 2.2, Booting the Installation Medium

The package scope of the SLES for SAP Applications — Installation is identical to a default SUSE Linux Enterprise Server installation.

Section 2.3, SLES for SAP — Installation

Add note about pre-selected packages in case of registration at this stage of the installation.

Section 2.4.3.5, Registration

Add note about pre-selected packages in case of registration at this stage of the installation.

Chapter 4, Installing SAP Applications

Rewrite remote location specification.

Section 2.6, “Partitioning”

SAP HANA requires 2 GB of swap.

Section 1.1.3, “Simplified SAP HANA System Replication Setup”

Address SAP HANA System Replication (https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=929626).

Section 1.1.7.2, “Hardening Guide for SAP HANA”

New section (https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=929625).

D.9 April 29, 2015

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

General

Replace SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 references with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 everywhere, and adjust the text according to the new installation flow.

About This Guide

Update feedback information.

Section 3.3, “Using an External AutoYaST Profile”

Add note about loading an external profile via HTTP (https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=925747).

D.10 October 28, 2013

Updates were made to the following sections. The changes are explained below.

Chapter 3, Installing the Operating System

Update Hardware Requirements, Hard Disk space, and adjust the following text accordingly.

Section 2.6, “Partitioning”

New chapter.

Appendix D, Documentation Updates

New appendix.

Print this page