10.2 Accessing the VM Guest via Console

VM Guests can be accessed via a VNC connection (graphical console) or, if supported by the guest operating system, via a serial console.

10.2.1 Opening a Graphical Console

Opening a graphical console to a VM Guest lets you interact with the machine like a physical host via a VNC connection. If accessing the VNC server requires authentication, you are prompted to enter a user name (if applicable) and a password.

When you click into the VNC console, the cursor is grabbed and cannot be used outside the console anymore. To release it, press Alt+Ctrl.

HINT: Seamless (Absolute) Cursor Movement

To prevent the console from grabbing the cursor and to enable seamless cursor movement, add a tablet input device to the VM Guest. See Section 14.5, Enabling Seamless and Synchronized Mouse Pointer Movement for more information.

Certain key combinations such as Ctrl+Alt+Del are interpreted by the host system and are not passed to the VM Guest. To pass such key combinations to a VM Guest, open the Send Key menu from the VNC window and choose the desired key combination entry. The Send Key menu is only available when using Virtual Machine Manager and virt-viewer. With Virtual Machine Manager, you can alternatively use the sticky key feature as explained in Passing Key Combinations to Virtual Machines.

NOTE: Supported VNC Viewers

Principally all VNC viewers can connect to the console of a VM Guest. However, if you are using SASL authentication and/or TLS/SSL connection to access the guest, the options are limited. Common VNC viewers such as tightvnc or tigervnc support neither SASL authentication nor TLS/SSL. The only supported alternative to Virtual Machine Manager and virt-viewer is Vinagre.

Opening a Graphical Console with Virtual Machine Manager

  1. In the Virtual Machine Manager, right-click a VM Guest entry.

  2. Choose Open from the pop-up menu.

Opening a Graphical Console with virt-viewer

virt-viewer is a simple VNC viewer with added functionality for displaying VM Guest consoles. For example, it can be started in wait mode, where it waits for a VM Guest to start before it connects. It also supports automatically reconnecting to a VM Guest that is rebooted.

virt-viewer addresses VM Guests by name, by ID or by UUID. Use virsh list --all to get this data.

To connect to a guest that is running or paused, use either the ID, UUID, or name. VM Guests that are shut off do not have an ID—you can only connect to them by UUID or name.

Connect to guest with the ID 8
tux > virt-viewer 8
Connect to the inactive guest named sles12; the connection window will open once the guest starts
tux > virt-viewer --wait sles12

With the --wait option, the connection will be upheld even if the VM Guest is not running at the moment. When the guest starts, the viewer will be launched.

For more information, see virt-viewer --help or man 1 virt-viewer.

NOTE: Password Input on Remote connections with SSH

When using virt-viewer to open a connection to a remote host via SSH, the SSH password needs to be entered twice. The first time for authenticating with libvirt, the second time for authenticating with the VNC server. The second password needs to be provided on the command line where virt-viewer was started.

10.2.2 Opening a Serial Console

Accessing the graphical console of a virtual machine requires a graphical environment on the client accessing the VM Guest. As an alternative, virtual machines managed with libvirt can also be accessed from the shell via the serial console and virsh. To open a serial console to a VM Guest named sles12, run the following command:

tux > virsh console sles12

virsh console takes two optional flags: --safe ensures exclusive access to the console, --force disconnects any existing sessions before connecting. Both features need to be supported by the guest operating system.

Being able to connect to a VM Guest via serial console requires that the guest operating system supports serial console access and is properly supported. Refer to the guest operating system manual for more information.

HINT: Enabling Serial Console Access for SUSE Linux Enterprise and openSUSE Guests

Serial console access in SUSE Linux Enterprise and openSUSE is disabled by default. To enable it, proceed as follows:

SLES 12 / openSUSE

Launch the YaST Boot Loader module and switch to the Kernel Parameters tab. Add console=ttyS0 to the field Optional Kernel Command Line Parameter.

SLES 11

Launch the YaST Boot Loader module and select the boot entry for which to activate serial console access. Choose Edit and add console=ttyS0 to the field Optional Kernel Command Line Parameter. Additionally, edit /etc/inittab and uncomment the line with the following content:

#S0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 ttyS0 vt102