In its simplest form, authentication is done by entering the user's password just as if logging in locally. However, having to memorize passwords of several users on remote machines is inefficient. What is more, these passwords may change. On the other hand—when granting root access—an administrator needs to be able to quickly revoke such a permission without having to change the root password.
To accomplish a login that does not require to enter the remote user's password, SSH uses another key pair, which needs to be generated by the user. It consists of a public (id_rsa.pub or id_dsa.pub) and a private key (id_rsa or id_dsa).
To be able to log in without having to specify the remote user's
password, the public key of the
SSH user must be
in ~/.ssh/authorized_keys. This approach also
ensures that the remote user has got full control: adding the key
requires the remote user's password and removing the key revokes the
permission to log in from remote.
For maximum security such a key should be protected by a passphrase which needs to be entered every time you use ssh, scp, or sftp. Contrary to the simple authentication, this passphrase is independent from the remote user and therefore always the same.
An alternative to the key-based authentication described above, SSH also offers a host-based authentication. With host-based authentication, users on a trusted host can log in to another host on which this feature is enabled using the same user name. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is set up for using key-based authentication, covering setting up host-based authentication on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is beyond the scope of this manual.
NOTE: File Permissions for Host-Based Authentication
If the host-based authentication is to be used, the file /usr/lib/ssh/ssh-keysign (32-bit systems) or /usr/lib64/ssh/ssh-keysign (64-bit systems) should have the setuid bit set, which is not the default setting in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. In such case, set the file permissions manually. You should use /etc/permissions.local for this purpose, to make sure that the setuid bit is preserved after security updates of openssh.
To generate a key with default parameters (RSA, 2048 bits), enter the command ssh-keygen.
Accept the default location to store the key (~/.ssh/id_rsa) by pressing Enter (strongly recommended) or enter an alternative location.
Enter a passphrase consisting of 10 to 30 characters. The same rules as for creating safe passwords apply. It is strongly advised to refrain from specifying no passphrase.
You should make absolutely sure that the private key is not accessible by anyone other than yourself (always set its permissions to 0600). The private key must never fall into the hands of another person.
To change the password of an existing key pair, use the command ssh-keygen -p.
To copy a public SSH key to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys of a user on a remote machine, use the command ssh-copy-id. To copy your personal key stored under ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub you may use the short form. To copy DSA keys or keys of other users, you need to specify the path:
# ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub ssh-copy-id -i tux@sun # ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub tux@sun # ~notme/.ssh/id_rsa.pub ssh-copy-id -i ~notme/.ssh/id_rsa.pub tux@sun
To successfully copy the key, you need to enter the remote user's password. To remove an existing key, manually edit ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.
When doing lots of secure shell operations it is cumbersome to type the SSH passphrase for each such operation. Therefore, the SSH package provides another tool, ssh-agent, which retains the private keys for the duration of an X or terminal session. All other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent. By starting the agent, a set of environment variables is set, which will be used by ssh, scp, or sftp to locate the agent for automatic login. See the ssh-agent man page for details.
After the ssh-agent is started, you need to add your keys by using ssh-add. It will prompt for the passphrase. After the password has been provided once, you can use the secure shell commands within the running session without having to authenticate again.
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, the ssh-agent is automatically started by the GNOME display manager. To also invoke ssh-add to add your keys to the agent at the beginning of an X session, do the following:
Log in as the desired user and check whether the file ~/.xinitrc exists.
If it does not exist, use an existing template or copy it from /etc/skel:
if [ -f ~/.xinitrc.template ]; then mv ~/.xinitrc.template ~/.xinitrc; \ else cp /etc/skel/.xinitrc.template ~/.xinitrc; fi
If you have copied the template, search for the following lines and uncomment them. If ~/.xinitrc already existed, add the following lines (without comment signs).
# if test -S "$SSH_AUTH_SOCK" -a -x "$SSH_ASKPASS"; then # ssh-add < /dev/null # fi
When starting a new X session, you will be prompted for your SSH passphrase.
In a terminal session you need to manually start the ssh-agent and then call ssh-add afterward. There are two ways to start the agent. The first example given below starts a new Bash shell on top of your existing shell. The second example starts the agent in the existing shell and modifies the environment as needed.
ssh-agent -s /bin/bash eval $(ssh-agent)
After the agent has been started, run ssh-add to provide the agent with your keys.