Enforcing Compliance of Container Environment Variables | SUSE Communities

Enforcing Compliance of Container Environment Variables

Share
Share

We’re excited to present the new environment-variable-policy to Kubewarden users. With this policy, you will now be able to inspect init containers and ephemeral containers. You can also restrict their usage by reviewing the names and values defined under the containers’ env[*] field.

As always, the policy can be found in ArtifactHub and all the artifacts, including the BOM files, are signed with Sigstore.

What is useful about the new environment-variable policy?

This policy complements the recently released env-variable-secrets-scanner policy. Both policies focus on validating the environment values provided to Kubernetes Pod objects. In this new policy, users can validate which variable names and values their resources can have.

The policy controls the environment variable defined in the containers using the four operators described in the next sections.

anyIn

anyIn works as a deny list of your usage of environment variables. It checks if any of the environmentVariables are in the Pod/Workload resource:

For example, given the following configuration:

settings:
  rules:
    - reject: anyIn
      environmentVariables:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo2"
          value: "bar2"

The following Pod would be rejected:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
    containers:
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx:1.14.2
        ports:
          - containerPort: 80
        env:
          - name: "foo"
            value: "bar"

But the next one would be accepted:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  containers:
    - name: nginx
      image: nginx:1.14.2
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: "foo3"
          value: "bar3"

anyNotIn

anyNotIn works as an allow list. Checks if any of the environmentVariables are not in the Pod/Workload resource:

For example, given the following configuration:

settings:
  rules:
    - reject: anyNotIn
      environmentVariables:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo2"
          value: "bar2"

The following Pod would be rejected:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  containers:
    - name: nginx
      image: nginx:1.14.2
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo3"
          value: "bar3"

But the next one would be accepted:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  containers:
    - name: nginx
      image: nginx:1.14.2
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo2"
          value: "bar2"

allAreUsed

allAreUsed the container cannot use all listed environment variables at once. Checks if all of the environmentVariables are in the Pod/Workload resource:

For example, given the following configuration:

settings:
  rules:
    - reject: allAreUsed
      environmentVariables:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo2"
          value: "bar2"
        - name: "foo3"
          value: "bar3"

The following Pod would be rejected:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  containers:
    - name: nginx
      image: nginx:1.14.2
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo2"
          value: "bar2"
        - name: "foo3"
          value: "bar3"

But the next one would be accepted:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  containers:
    - name: nginx
      image: nginx:1.14.2
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo3"
          value: "bar3"

notAllAreUsed

notAllAreUsed the container can use all listed environment variables at once. But it cannot has only a subset of them.
Checks if all of the environmentVariables are not in the Pod/Workload resource

For example, given the following configuration:

settings:
  rules:
    - reject: notAllAreUsed
      environmentVariables:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo2"
          value: "bar2"

The following Pod would be rejected:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  containers:
    - name: nginx
      image: nginx:1.14.2
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"

But the next one would be accepted:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
spec:
  containers:
    - name: nginx
      image: nginx:1.14.2
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: "foo"
          value: "bar"
        - name: "foo2"
          value: "bar2"

Using multiple rules

The user is allowed to define multiple rules in the policy settings. The resource must be approved by all of them to be accepted into the cluster.
Let’s take a look at an example. Consider the following rules:

kubectl apply -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: policies.kubewarden.io/v1
kind: ClusterAdmissionPolicy
metadata:
  name: environment-variable-policy
spec:
  module: ghcr.io/kubewarden/policies/environment-variable-policy:v0.1.1
  mutating: false
  rules:
    - apiGroups: ["apps"]
      apiVersions: ["v1"]
      resources: ["deployments"]
      operations:
        - CREATE
        - UPDATE
  settings:
    rules:
      - reject: anyIn
        environmentVariables:
          - name: "foo"
            value: "bar"
          - name: "foo2"
            value: "bar2"
      - reject: allAreUsed
        environmentVariables:
          - name: "foo3"
            value: "bar3"
          - name: "foo4"
            value: "bar4"
EOF

The following two Deployments will be rejected. The first rule will reject the first one:

kubectl apply -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx-deployment
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: template-nginx
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: template-nginx
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: nginx
          image: nginx:1.14.2
          ports:
            - containerPort: 80
          env:
            - name: "foo"
              value: "bar"
EOF
Error from server: error when creating "STDIN": admission webhook "clusterwide-environment-variable-policy.kubewarden.admission" denied the request: Resource cannot define any of the environment variables from the rule.

The second Deployment will be rejected by the second rule:

kubectl apply -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx-deployment
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: template-nginx
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: template-nginx
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: nginx
          image: nginx:1.14.2
          ports:
            - containerPort: 80
          env:
            - name: "foo3"
              value: "bar3"
            - name: "foo4"
              value: "bar4"
EOF
Error from server: error when creating "STDIN": admission webhook "clusterwide-environment-variable-policy.kubewarden.admission" denied the request: Resource cannot have all the environment variables from the rule defined.

But when we try to deploy a resource that respects both rules, it will be created with no issues:

kubectl apply -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx-deployment
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: template-nginx
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: template-nginx
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: nginx
          image: nginx:1.14.2
          ports:
            - containerPort: 80
          env:
            - name: "foo3"
              value: "bar3"
EOF
deployment.apps/nginx-deployment created

A use-case example

Let’s see how users can enforce that their resources have minimum required environment variables. For that, it possible to use the allAreUsed operator:

kubectl apply -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: policies.kubewarden.io/v1
kind: ClusterAdmissionPolicy
metadata:
  name: environment-variable-policy
spec:
  module: ghcr.io/kubewarden/policies/environment-variable-policy:v0.1.1
  mutating: false
  rules:
    - apiGroups: ["apps"]
      apiVersions: ["v1"]
      resources: ["deployments"]
      operations:
        - CREATE
        - UPDATE
  settings:
    rules:
      - reject: anyIn
        environmentVariables:
          - name: "foo"
            value: "bar"
          - name: "foo2"
            value: "bar2"
EOF

With the above policy only resources that have all the variables defined in the environmentVariables field will be allowed.

Now try to deploy a resource that violates that rule:

kubectl apply -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx-deployment
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: template-nginx
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: template-nginx
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: nginx
          image: nginx:1.14.2
          ports:
            - containerPort: 80
          env:
            - name: "foo"
              value: "bar"
EOF
Error from server: error when creating "STDIN": admission webhook "clusterwide-environment-variable-policy.kubewarden.admission" denied the request: Resource cannot define any of the environment variables from the rule.

Summary

We hope this article provided you with a nice overview of the potential use cases of this policy and how to use it. Give it a try and, as usual, we look forward to your feedback 🙂

Have ideas for new policies? Would you like more features on existing ones? Drop us a line at #kubewarden on Slack!

Share
(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)